Textile Chemistry, 2nd Edition PDF by Thomas Bechtold and Tung Pham

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Textile Chemistry, 2nd Edition

By Thomas Bechtold and Tung Pham

Textile Chemistry, 2nd Edition

Contents:

Preface of second edition XIII

1 Textiles 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Spinning 1

1.3 Linear density – yarn count 3

1.4 Fabric formation 4

1.5 Textile chemical aspects in spinning and fabric formation 5

1.5.1 Spin finish 6

1.5.2 Sizing 8

1.5.3 Embroidery 10

1.5.4 Printing/coating 10

1.5.5 Garment production/assembly/joining 11

1.5.6 Technical textiles 11

References 12

2 Textile fibres 17

2.1 Fibre production 17

2.2 Fibre formation 20

2.2.1 Polymer-dependent fibre properties 20

2.3 Molecular mass/degree of polymerisation 24

2.4 Important fibres and their chemistry 26

2.4.1 Cellulose fibres 26

2.4.2 Structure of cotton/flax/hemp fibres 27

2.5 Relevant aspects of cellulose chemistry (chemical reactions,

derivatisation and chemical stability) 32

2.6 Chemical reactions 35

2.6.1 Derivatisation 35

2.6.2 Hydrolysis 35

2.6.3 Oxidation 36

2.6.4 Esterification 37

2.6.5 Etherification 38

2.6.6 Complex formation 39

2.6.7 The secondary structure of cellulose 40

2.6.8 Methods of structural characterisation 41

2.7 Regenerated cellulose fibres 42

2.7.1 Dissolution of cellulose 42

2.7.2 The viscose process 43

2.7.3 Lyocell fibres – the NMMO process 46

2.7.4 Ionic liquids and other cellulose solvents 49

2.7.5 Cupro fibres – the cuprammonium process 49

2.7.6 Cellulose diacetate and triacetate 50

2.8 Protein fibres 51

2.8.1 General aspects of protein fibres 51

2.8.2 Protein structure – basic properties 52

2.8.3 Wool 55

2.8.4 Silk 57

2.8.5 Casein fibres 58

2.9 Synthetic fibres 59

2.9.1 General 59

2.9.2 Polyamide 60

2.9.3 Aminocarboxylic acid-based PAs 61

2.9.4 Diamine–dicarboxylic acid-based PAs 63

2.9.5 PES fibres 65

2.9.6 Polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrate 69

2.9.7 Polyurethanes/elastomer fibres 71

2.9.8 Polyolefin fibres, PE and PP 74

2.9.9 Polyacrylonitrile fibres 78

2.9.10 High-performance fibres 80

References 83

3 Structure of textile fibres 91

3.1 General aspects 91

3.2 Crystallinity versus amorphous regions 91

3.3 Constitution of a polymer 92

3.4 High-performance fibres 94

3.5 Molecular weight distribution 95

3.6 Consequences of polydispersity 96

3.7 Configuration 97

3.8 Conformation 100

3.8.1 Conformational statistics 101

3.9 Polymer assemblies 101

3.10 The thermodynamic non-equilibrium state of polymers 103

3.11 Models of fibre structure 104

3.12 Consequences of polymer order in a fibre 107

3.12.1 Moisture/adsorption/swelling 108

References 110

4 Basic interactions between fibre polymers and sorptives 113

4.1 General 113

4.2 Dipoles 113

4.3 Polarisability 115

4.4 Molecular interactions 117

4.4.1 Ion–ion interactions 117

4.4.2 Van der Waals forces 119

4.4.3 Hydrogen bonds 120

4.4.4 Hydrophobic interactions 121

4.4.5 π-electron interactions 122

4.5 The polymer–solvent boundary layer 123

4.6 Zeta potential 126

4.7 Donnan equilibrium 131

References 133

5 Thermodynamics and kinetics in fibre chemistry 137

5.1 Moisture sorption 137

5.2 Moisture sorption isotherms 138

5.2.1 Water activity 139

5.3 Sorption kinetics for adsorption from the gas phase 144

5.4 Sorption from the liquid phase 148

5.4.1 General considerations 148

5.4.2 The Nernst isotherm 149

5.4.3 The Freundlich isotherm 150

5.4.4 Langmuir adsorption isotherm 152

5.4.5 Special aspects of sorption isotherms 154

References 160

6 Kinetics of textile chemical processes 165

6.1 Elementary steps in polyester dyeing 165

6.2 Step A – dissolution of dispersed dye 165

6.3 Infinite and finite dyeing kinetics 167

6.4 Step B – hydraulic transport in the dyebath 168

6.5 Step C – diffusion through the boundary layer of the fibre 169

6.6 Step D – dyestuff sorption in the fibre 170

6.7 Levelling 171

6.8 Follow-up reactions – kinetics in reactive dyeing 172

6.9 Preceding and following reactions – vat dyeing 174

6.10 Aggregation 175

References 176

7 Basics of colour development 179

7.1 The phenomenon of colour – how to approach? 179

7.2 Physical aspects of colour development 179

7.3 Additive and subtractive colour 183

7.4 Development of colour 184

7.5 Colour variations independent of molecular structure 190

7.6 Fluorescence and phosphorescence 191

7.7 Textile chemical relevance 193

References 196

8 General principles of dyes 201

8.1 The molecular structure of dyes 201

8.2 The azo chromophore 201

8.2.1 Mono-, di- and polyazo dyes 201

8.2.2 The diazotisation 202

8.2.3 The coupling component 204

8.3 Anthraquinone chromophores 207

8.4 Indigoid chromophores 210

8.5 Cationic dyes 210

8.6 Polymethine dyes 211

8.7 Phthalocyanine dyes – Aza[18]annulenes 212

8.8 Sulphur-based chromophores 213

8.9 Metal complexes 214

8.10 Formazan dyes 215

8.11 Fluorescent brighteners/fluorescent whitening agents 216

8.12 Photodegradation of dyes 216

8.13 Photodegradation of dye classes 218

References 222

9 Colour measurement 225

9.1 The perception of colour 225

9.2 The standard observer 228

9.3 Colour specification through the CIELAB system 230

9.4 Metamerism 231

9.5 Tristimulus values 232

9.6 Colour coordinates 234

9.7 Measurement of reflectance curves 238

9.8 Determination of whiteness, yellowness 240

9.9 Colour strength – the Kubelka–Munk function 241

9.10 Prediction of dyeing recipes 244

9.11 Gloss/lustre 245

References 246

10 Dye chemistry 249

10.1 Overview 249

10.2 Disperse dyes 249

10.2.1 Dyeing processes with disperse dyes 249

10.2.2 Reductive cleaning 253

10.3 Direct dyes 254

10.4 Reactive dyes 256

10.4.1 Chemistry of reactive dyes 256

10.4.2 Important dyeing techniques 264

10.5 Vat dyes 268

10.5.1 Oxidation/soaping 274

10.6 Indigo 278

10.6.1 Synthesis of indigo 278

10.6.2 Application of indigo 279

10.6.3 Chemistry of indigo reduction 282

10.6.4 Garment wash – fading 286

10.7 Sulphur dyes 287

10.8 Acid dyes and metal complex dyes 291

10.9 Naphthol dyes 294

10.10 Cationic dyes/basic dyes 295

10.11 Natural colourants 297

10.11.1 General aspects 297

10.11.2 Major classes of natural colourants 298

10.11.3 Tannin-based dyes 305

10.12 Pigment dyes 307

10.13 Textile printing 308

10.13.1 General aspects of printing 308

10.13.2 Screen printing 312

10.13.3 Ink-jet printing 313

10.13.4 Special printing techniques 315

References 316

11 Pre-treatment 323

11.1 Sizing 323

11.2 Desizing 326

11.3 Alkaline extraction 327

11.4 Prewashing of textiles from synthetic fibres 328

11.5 Setting of synthetic fibres 328

11.6 Alkalisation (causticising, mercerisation) 329

11.7 Alkalisation of polyester fibres 331

11.8 Bleaching 332

11.8.1 General aspects 332

11.8.2 Peroxide compounds 332

11.8.3 Halogen-based oxidants 335

11.9 Singing 337

11.10 Carbonisation 337

11.11 Reductive bleach 338

11.12 Wool anti-felt treatment 339

11.13 Cationisation 341

11.14 Degumming of silk 341

11.15 Production of microfibres 342

References 342

12 Finishing 347

12.1 General aspects 347

12.2 Easy-care/durable press finishing 347

12.3 Softening 351

12.4 Hand building finishes 353

12.5 Water-repellent finishes 354

12.6 Flame retardant finishes 356

12.7 Antistatic finishes 361

12.8 Improvement of colour fastness 366

12.9 Improving the light fastness 367

12.10 UV protection 368

12.11 Antimicrobial finishing 371

12.12 Insect-resistant finishes – Mite protection 374

12.13 Enzymatic finishing – biofinishing 375

12.14 Denim finishing 376

12.15 Finishes that influence thermal regulation 379

12.16 Sorption of fragrances and functional substances 380

12.17 Plasma chemistry in textile treatment/modification 381

12.17.1 Introduction 381

12.17.2 Effect of plasma treatment on fibre and textile surfaces 382

12.17.3 Free radical formation 383

12.17.4 Etching/cleaning 383

12.17.5 Surface activation and functionalisation 384

12.17.6 Surface coating by plasma-induced polymerisation 384

12.17.7 Industrial plasma technologies and applications on textiles 385

References 386

13 Technical approaches in dyestuff/chemical application 391

13.1 General aspects 391

13.2 Batchwise operation 392

13.3 Yarn dyeing apparatus 392

13.4 Overflow dyeing machines/jet dyeing machines 394

13.5 Continuous pretreatment 395

13.6 Continuous dyeing processes – cold-pad-batch dyeing 400

13.7 Continuous dyeing processes – pad-dry/pad steam plants 402

13.8 Drying, fixation and finishing 406

13.9 Minimum pick-up applications 407

13.10 Coating and laminating 408

References 409

14 Surfactants, detergents and laundry 415

14.1 Surfactants 415

14.2 Classification of surfactants 415

14.3 Solubility of surfactants 416

14.4 Contact angle 418

14.5 Cloud point 421

14.6 Surfactant adhesion at interfaces 421

14.7 The role of multivalent ions 423

14.8 Detergent ingredients 423

14.9 Washing and environment 430

References 430

15 Environmental aspects of textiles 433

15.1 Waste water 433

15.2 General wastewater treatment 434

15.3 Processing steps and relevant aspects of wastewater treatment 435

15.3.1 General 435

15.3.2 Wool processing 436

15.3.3 Sizing/desizing 436

15.3.4 Scouring, bleaching, pre-washing 438

15.3.5 Mercerisation/causticising 439

15.3.6 Dyeing processes 440

15.3.7 Printing 442

15.3.8 Finishing 442

15.4 End-of-pipe technologies 443

15.4.1 Neutralisation 443

15.4.2 Filtration techniques 443

15.4.3 Flocculation and sedimentation 444

15.4.4 Oxidative processes 445

15.4.5 Adsorption 445

15.4.6 Biological (aerobic, anaerobic) treatment 445

15.5 Recycling and disposal 446

15.6 Approaches and challenges 447

References 447

16 Circularity, recycling and disposal 453

16.1 The EU concept of circularity 453

16.2 Terms and definitions used for assessment of products and

processes 455

16.3 Important steps in a circular concept 456

16.4 Composition of textile material 456

16.5 Design for recycling 457

16.6 Facilitating steps 457

16.7 Mechanical recycling 458

16.8 Thermal recycling 460

16.9 Chemical recycling 464

16.10 Consumer use 469

References 470

Index 473

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