Organizational Behavior, 19th Edition PDF by Stephen P Robbins and Timothy A Judge

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Organizational Behavior, 19th Edition

By Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge

Organizational Behavior, 19th Edition

Contents:

Preface 21

1 Introduction

1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 36

Management and Organizational Behavior 38

Who’s Who in the World of Work 39 • Management Activities 40 •

Management Roles 40 • Management Skills 42 • Effective Versus

Successful Managerial Activities 42 • Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 43

Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 44

Building on Big Data with Artificial Intelligence 45

Myth or Science? Management by Walking Around Is the Most Effective

Management 46

Disciplines That Contribute to OB 49

Psychology 49 • Social Psychology 50 • Sociology 50 • Anthropology 51

There Are Few Absolutes in OB 51

Challenges and Opportunities 51

Workforce Diversity and Inclusion 52 • Continuing Globalization 52 •

Technology and Social Media 54 • (Un)ethical Behavior 55 •

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 56

Toward a Better World Ben & Jerry’s: The Scoop on What It Takes to Be a

CSR-Oriented Company 57

Positive Work Environments 58 • The Gig Economy 58 • OB During Crises 60

Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 60

An Overview 60 • Inputs 60 • Processes 61 • Outcomes 61

An Ethical Choice What Should You Do If Your Values Do Not Align with

Your Company’s? 65

Employability Skills 66

Employability Skills That Apply Across Majors 67

Summary 69

Implications for Managers 69

Point/Counterpoint Business Books: Facts? Or Just Fads? 70

Questions for Review 71

Experiential Exercise Managing Remote Teams 71

Ethical Dilemma Credit Where Credit Is Due 72

Case Incident Work–Life Balance at R.G. & Company 72

2 The Individual

2 Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Organizations 74

Understanding Diversity 76

Levels of Diversity 77 • Biographical Characteristics 77

Myth or Science? Bald Is Better 79

Prejudice and Discrimination in Organizations 82

Prejudice and Implicit Bias 82 • Discrimination, Disparate Impact,

and Treatment 83 • Subtle Discrimination in the Workplace 85

Theoretical Perspectives on Prejudice, Discrimination, and Diversity 85

Social Categorization 85 • Stereotyping, Stereotype Threat, and Stigma 86

Toward a Better World Hot Chicken Takeover: Putting Restorative Justice

into Practice 88

System Justification and Social Dominance 89 •

Intersectionality and the Cultural Mosaic 90

Diversity Dynamics 92

Group Composition 92 • Fault Lines 93

Cross-Cultural Organizational Behavior (OB) 94

Hofstede’s Framework 94 • The GLOBE Framework 95 • Cultural Tightness

and Looseness 97 • Religion 98 • Expatriate Adjustment 99 • Cultural

Intelligence (CQ) 99

Implementing Diversity Management 100

An Ethical Choice Affirmative Action for Unemployed Veterans 101

Theoretical Basis Underlying Diversity Management 102 • Diversity Management

Practices 103 • Cultures and Climates for Diversity 106 • The Challenge

of Diversity Management 106

Summary 107

Implications for Managers 108

Point/Counterpoint Using Artificial Intelligence for Hiring Leads

to Greater Diversity 109

Questions for Review 108

Experiential Exercise Differences 110

Ethical Dilemma Should You Question an Employer About Its DEI Policy? 110

Case Incident Encouraging Female Engineers 111

3 Job Attitudes 112

Attitudes 114

Attitudes and Behavior 116

Job Attitudes 117

Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 118

An Ethical Choice Office Talk 118

Organizational Commitment 119 • Perceived Organizational

Support 120 • Employee Engagement 120 • Job Attitudes in the Gig

Economy 121 • Are These Job Attitudes All That Distinct? 121

Job Satisfaction 122

How Do I Measure Job Satisfaction? 122 • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? 123

What Causes Job Satisfaction? 125

Job Conditions 125 • Personality and Individual Differences 126 • Pay 127

Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 127

Job Performance 127

Toward a Better World Nvidians: Together Transforming Communities Around

the World 128

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 128 • Customer Satisfaction 129 •

Life Satisfaction129

The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 129

Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 130

Myth or Science? Happy Workers Means Happy Profits 132

Managers Often “Don’t Get It” 132

Summary 133

Implications for Managers 133

Point/Counterpoint Earning That Promotion May Be Key to Higher Job Satisfaction 134

Questions for Review 134

Experiential Exercise Managing Political Views in the Office 135

Ethical Dilemma Tell-All Websites 136

Case Incident Jobs, Money, and Satisfaction 136

4 Emotions and Moods 138

What Are Emotions and Moods? 140

Positive and Negative Affect 141 • The Basic Emotions 142 •

Moral Emotions 143 • Experiencing Moods and Emotions 144 •

The Function of Emotions 145

Sources of Emotions and Moods 146

Personality 146 • Time of Day 146 • Day of the Week 148 • Weather 148 •

Stress 148 • Social Interactions 148 • Sleep 150 • Exercise 150 • Gender

Identity 150

Emotional Labor 151

Controlling Emotional Displays 151

Myth or Science? All Employees Experience Emotional Labor in the Same Way 152

Affective Events Theory 153

Emotional Intelligence 153

An Ethical Choice Should Managers Use Emotional Intelligence (EI) Tests? 155

Emotion Regulation 156

Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 156 • Emotion Regulation

Techniques 157 • Ethics of Emotion Regulation 158

OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 158

The Selection Process 158 • Decision Making 159 • Creativity 159 •

Motivation 160 • Leadership 160 • Negotiation 161 • Customer

Service 161 • Work–Life Conflict 161

Toward a Better World Scream Agency: Harnessing Customer Emotions to

Bolster CSR 162

Unethical Workplace Behaviors 163 • Safety and Injury at Work 163

Summary 164

Implications for Managers 164

Point/Counterpoint Sometimes Yelling Is for Everyone’s Good 165

Questions for Review 165

Experiential Exercise Mindfulness at Work 166

Ethical Dilemma Data Mining Emotions 166

Case Incident Performance Review Shock: Being Told How to Feel and Act 167

5 Personality and Individual Differences 168

Linking Individuals to the Workplace 170

Person–Job Fit 171 • Person–Organization Fit 172 • Other Dimensions of Fit 172

Toward a Better World Uber: In the Median or Back on the Road Again? 173

Personality 174

What Is Personality? 174

Personality Frameworks 176

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 176 • The Big Five Personality Model 177 •

The Dark Triad 181 • Other Frameworks 182

An Ethical Choice Do Certain Personality Traits Make You More Unethical? 183

Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 184

Core Self-Evaluations (CSEs) 184 • Self-Monitoring 185 • Proactive Personality 185

Myth or Science? We Can Accurately Judge Individuals’ Personalities a Few

Seconds After Meeting Them 186

Personality and Situations 187

Situation Strength Theory 187 • Trait Activation Theory 188

Ability 189

Intellectual Abilities 189 • Physical Abilities 191

Values 192

Terminal Versus Instrumental Values 193 • Generational Values 193

Summary 195

Implications for Managers 195

Point/Counterpoint Millennials Are More Narcissistic Than Other Generations 196

Questions for Review 196

Experiential Exercise Acing the Interview 197

Ethical Dilemma How Long Should You Wait Before Deciding If a Job Is

Not a Good Fit? 198

Case Incident Sky Energy 198

6 Perception and Individual Decision Making 200

What Is Perception? 202

Factors That Influence Perception 203

Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others 204

Attribution Theory 204

Toward a Better World Volkswagen: Going Green or Just Greenwashing? 207

Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 208 • Specific Applications of Shortcuts

in Organizations 209

Myth or Science? All Stereotypes Are Negative 211

The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making 211

Decision Making in Organizations 212

The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 212 •

Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 214

Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational

Constraints 219

Individual Differences 219 • Organizational Constraints 220

Ethics in Decision Making 222

Three Ethical Decision Criteria 222 • Choosing Between Criteria 223 •

Behavioral Ethics 223 • Lying224

An Ethical Choice Are We as Ethical as We Think We Are? 225

Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 225

Creative Behavior 226 • Causes of Creative Behavior 227 • Creative

Outcomes (Innovation) 229

Summary 229

Implications for Managers 230

Point/Counterpoint Implicit Assessment 231

Questions for Review 231

Experiential Exercise Bringing Life to a Food Desert 232

Ethical Dilemma Max’s Burgers: The Dollar Value of Ethics 232

Case Incident Warning: Collaboration Overload 233

7 Motivation Concepts 234

Motivation Defined 237

Classic Theories of Motivation 238

Hierarchy of Needs Theory 238 • Two-Factor Theory 238 • McClelland’s

Theory of Needs 240 • Contemporary Theories: A Primer 241

Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Content-Based 242

Self-Determination Theory 242

Myth or Science? Work Has to Be Purposeful to Be Motivating 243

Regulatory Focus Theory 244 • Job Engagement Theory 244

Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Context-Based 245

Reinforcement Theory 245 • Social Learning Theory 246

An Ethical Choice Motivated by Big Brother 247

Contemporary Theories of Motivation: Process-Based 247

Expectancy Theory 247 • Goal-Setting Theory 249 • Self-Efficacy

Theory 253

Organizational Justice 255

Equity Theory 255 • Distributive Justice 257 • Procedural Justice 258 •

Interactional Justice 258 • Justice

Outcomes 259 • Culture and Justice 260

Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 260

Toward a Better World Kroger: Zero Hunger, Zero Waste 262

Summary 263

Implications for Managers 263

Point/Counterpoint Feel-Good Messaging Is More Motivating Than Instrumental

Messaging 264

Questions for Review 265

Experiential Exercise How Do You Motivate an Employee? 265

Ethical Dilemma Follies of Reward 266

Case Incident Why Lead by Example? 266

8 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications 268

Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 271

Elements of the JCM 272 • Efficacy of the JCM 272 •

Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 273

Job Redesign 273

Job Rotation and Job Enrichment 273 • Relational Job Design 274

Alternative Work Arrangements 275

Flextime 276

Myth or Science? Job Crafting Is a Practical Way to Reduce Boredom

and Burnout 277

Job Sharing 278 • Telecommuting 278

Employee Involvement 281

Examples

of Employee Involvement Programs (EIP) 281 • Cultural Considerations

in Implementing EIP Programs282

Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 283

What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 284 • How to Pay: Rewarding Individual

Employees Through Variable-Pay Programs 285

An Ethical Choice Workers’ Cooperatives 290

Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 291

Flexible Benefits: Developing a Benefits Package 291

Toward a Better World Sociabble Trees: Rewarding Through Reforestation 292

Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 293

Employee Recognition Programs 293

Summary 294

Implications for Managers 295

Point/Counterpoint Gainsharing: Fair Shares? 296

Questions for Review 296

Experiential Exercise Developing an Organizational Development and Compensation

Plan for Automotive Sales Consultants 297

Ethical Dilemma Playing Favorites? 297

Case Incident JP Transport 298

3 The Group

9 Foundations of Group Behavior 300

Defining and Classifying Groups 302

Social Identity 303

Stages of Group Development 305

Group Property 1: Roles 306

Role Perception 306 • Role Expectations 306 • Role Conflict 308

Myth or Science? Gossip and Exclusion Are Toxic for Groups 308

Group Property 2: Norms 309

Norms and Emotions 309 • Norms and Conformity 309 • Norms and

Behavior 310 • Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 311 • Negative Norms

and Group Outcomes 312 • Norms and Culture 313

Group Property 3: Status and Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 314

Group Property 3: Status 314

An Ethical Choice Managing a Narcissist in the Group 316

Group Property 4: Size and Dynamics 316

Group Property 5: Cohesion 318

Toward a Better World Whirlpool: Building Cohesion Through Volunteering 319

Group Decision Making 319

Groups Versus the Individual 320 • Groupthink and Groupshift 321 •

Group Decision-Making Techniques 322

Summary 323

Implications for Managers 323

Point/Counterpoint Conformity Is Counterproductive and Should Be Avoided 325

Questions for Review 326

Experiential Exercise Surviving the Wild: Join a Group or Go It Alone? 326

Ethical Dilemma Follow the Leader? 328

Case Incident Cultural Context and Group Dynamics 328

10 Understanding Work Teams 330

Differences Between Groups and Teams 332

Types of Teams 333

Problem-Solving Teams 334 • Self-Managed Work Teams 334 • Cross-Functional

Teams 335 • Virtual Teams 336 • Multiteam Systems 336

An Ethical Choice The Size of Your Meeting’s Carbon Footprint 337

Creating Effective Teams 338

Team Context 338 • Team Composition 340

Toward a Better World Hershey: Advancing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Through

Groups and Teams 343

Team Processes and States 344

Myth or Science? Teams Should Practice Collective Mindfulness 345

Turning Groups of Employees into Teams 349

Selecting: Hiring for Team Effectiveness 349 • Training: Creating Effective

Teams 349 • Rewarding: Providing Incentives for Exceptional Teams 350

Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 351

Summary 352

Implications for Managers 352

Point/Counterpoint Team Building Exercises Are a Waste of Time 353

Questions for Review 354

Experiential Exercise Should You Use Self-Managed Teams? 354

Ethical Dilemma When Your Cycling Skills Matter! 354

Case Incident Psychological Safety and Team Effectiveness 355

11 Communication 356

Interpersonal Communication 359

Oral Communication 359

Myth or Science? Better Listening Is the Key to Better Working Relationships 362

Written Communication 364 • Nonverbal Communication 367

Choosing Communication Methods 370

Choosing Communication Methods 370 • Handling Barriers to Effective Communication 372

Toward a Better World Mobile Citizen and Mobile Beacon: Two Companies Enhancing

Access to Smartphones and the Internet 374

Advancements in Virtual Communication 375

Videoconferencing 375 • Blogging, Vlogging, and Podcasting 377 •

E-collaboration and E-learning 378 • The

Currency of Virtual Communication:

Emojis, Usernames, Selfies, and More 378

Smartphones, Social Media, and Cybersecurity 379

Smartphones (and Other Smart Devices) 380 • Social Media 381

An Ethical Choice What Should You Do If an Employee Is Being Cyberbullied or

Harassed Online? 383

Cybersecurity 384

Cross-Cultural Communication 385

Cultural Context 385 • The Interface Between Cultures 387 • Aspects of

Cultural Communication 388 • A Guide to Cross-Cultural Communication 389

Summary 391

Implications for Managers 391

Point/Counterpoint Work Friendships Are Not a Good Idea 392

Questions

for Review 393

Experiential Exercise Choosing the Right Modes of Communication 393

Ethical Dilemma BYOD 394

Case Incident How Do You Communicate That You Are Passionate During

an Interview? 395

12 Leadership 396

Trait Theories 399

Personality Traits and Leadership 399 • Emotional Intelligence and

Leadership 401

Behavioral Theories 402

Initiating Structure 402 • Consideration 402

An Ethical Choice The Ethics of Nudging 403

Summary of Trait Theories and Behavioral Theories 404

Contingency Theories 404

The Fiedler Model 404 • Situational Leadership Theory 405 • Follower Contingency

Theories 407 • Leading in Times of Crisis 409

Positive Leadership Styles and Relationships 410

Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 410 • Charismatic Leadership 411 •

The Full Range Leadership Model 414 • Integrating and Evaluating Positive

Leadership Styles 416

The (Un)ethical Aspects of Leadership 418

Authentic Leadership 418

Toward a Better World The Institute for Corporate Social Responsibility (iCSR):

Training Leaders to Work Toward a Better Tomorrow 420

(Un)ethical Leadership 421 • Servant Leadership 422 • Abusive Supervision 422

Leadership and Trust 424

Trust 424

Challenges and Opportunities to Our Understanding of Leadership 426

Leadership Challenges 427 • Leadership Opportunities 429

Myth or Science? Leaders Can Be Trained 430

Summary 432

Implications for Managers 432

Point/Counterpoint CEOs Start Early 434

Questions for Review 435

Experiential Exercise What’s in a Leader? 435

Ethical Dilemma Innocent, but What About Trust? 436

Case Incident Andrea Illy: Leading a Family Company Responsibly 436

13 Power and Politics 438

Power and Leadership 441

Bases of Power 442

Formal Power 442 • Personal Power 443 • Which Bases of Power Are Most

Effective? 444

Dependence: The Key to Power 444

The General Dependence Postulate 444 • What Creates Dependence? 445 •

Formal Small-Group Networks446

Social Network Analysis: A Tool for

Assessing Resource Dependence 447

Influence Tactics 449

Using Influence Tactics 449 • Automatic and Controlled Processing of

Influence 451 • Applying Influence Tactics 452

Toward

a Better World Old Mutual: Realizing a Sustainability Vision Through

Influence 453

How Power Affects People 454

Power Dynamics 454 • Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace 455

Politics: Power in Action 456

Political Behavior 457 • The Reality of Politics 457 • Gossip and the Grapevine 458

The Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior 458

Factors Contributing to Political Behavior 458 • Factors Contributing to Political

Behavior Acquiescence 460 • How Do People Respond to

Organizational Politics? 460

Myth or Science? Office Politics Should Be Avoided Altogether 462

Voice and Silence 462 • Impression Management 465

An Ethical Choice How Much Should You Manage Interviewer Impressions? 467

The Ethics of Behaving Politically 468 • Mapping Your Political Career 468

Summary 470

Implications for Managers 471

Point/Counterpoint Emphasize the Strategies Women Can Use to Get Ahead 472

Questions for Review 473

Experiential Exercise The Turnaround Task Force 473

Ethical Dilemma Sexual Harassment and Office Romances 474

Case Incident Imperium Omni 474

14 Conflict and Negotiation 476

A Definition of Conflict 478

(Dys)functional Conflict 479 • Types of Conflict 479 • Loci of Conflict 481

The Conflict Process 482

Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 483 • Stage II: Cognition and

Personalization 485 • Stage III: Intentions 485 • Stage IV:

Behavior 487 • Stage V: Outcomes 488 • Managing Conflict 489

Negotiation 491

Bargaining Strategies 491

The Negotiation Process 495

Preparation and Planning 495 • Definition of Ground Rules 496 •

Clarification and Justification 497 • Bargaining and Problem

Solving 497 • Closure and Implementation 497

Myth or Science? Good Negotiators Rely on Intuition 497

Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness 498

Personality Traits in Negotiations 498 • Moods and Emotions in

Negotiations 499 • Culture and Race in Negotiations 500 • Gender

in Negotiations 501

Negotiating in a Social Context 502

Reputation 502

Toward a Better World ALDI: Downstream Environmental and Social Implications of

Supplier Negotiations 503

Relationships 504

An Ethical Choice Ethical Challenges in Negotiation 504

Third-Parties in Negotiations 505

Summary 505

Implications for Managers 506

Point/Counterpoint Nonunion Positions and the Gig Economy Are Bad for

Workers 508

Questions for Review 509

Experiential Exercise A Negotiation Role Play 509

Ethical Dilemma To Intervene or Not to Intervene? 510

Case Incident Disorderly Conduct 511

15 Foundations of Organization Structure 512

What Is Organizational Structure? 514

Work Specialization 515 • Departmentalization 517 • Chain of

Command 519 • Span of Control 520 • Centralization and

Decentralization 521 • Formalization 522 • Boundary Spanning 522

Common Organizational Frameworks and Structures 524

The Simple Structure 524 • The Bureaucracy 525

Myth or Science? Bureaucracy Is the Enemy of Innovation and Productivity 526

The Matrix Structure 526

Newer Trends in Organizational Design 528

The Virtual Structure 528 • The Team Structure 530

An Ethical Choice Flexible Structures, Deskless Workplaces 531

The Circular Structure 532

The Leaner Organization: Downsizing 532

Why Do Structures Differ? 534

Organizational Strategies 535

Toward a Better World Grove Collaborative: Innovating in the CSR and Sustainability

Market Space 536

Organization Size 538 • Technology 538 • Environment 538 •

Institutions 539

Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior 540

Span of Control 540 • Centralization 540 • Predictability Versus Autonomy 541 •

National Culture 541

Summary 542

Implications for Managers 542

Point/Counterpoint Open-Air Offices Inspire Creativity and Enhance

Productivity 543

Questions for Review 543

Experiential Exercise Remote Work 544

Ethical Dilemma The Ethics of Layoffs 544

Case Incident Kuuki: Reading the Atmosphere 545

4 The Organization System

16 Organizational Culture and Change 546

What Is Organizational Culture? 549

A Definition of Organizational Culture 549 • Do Organizations Have

Uniform Cultures? 551

Strong Versus Weak Cultures 552

Myth or Science? An Organization’s Culture Is Forever 552

How Employees Learn Culture 553

Stories 553 • Rituals 553 • Symbols 554

Language 554

An Ethical Choice A Culture of Compassion 555

Creating and Sustaining Culture 556

How a Culture Begins 556 • Keeping a Culture Alive 557

What Do Cultures Do? 561

The Functions of Culture 561 • Culture Creates Climate 562 • Culture as an Asset 564

Toward a Better World Morgan Stanley: Sustainable and Ethical Organizational

Cultures Influence Investment Decisions 566

Culture as a Liability 567

Influencing Organizational Cultures 569

Developing a Positive Culture 570 • Developing an Ethical Culture 571 •

Developing an Innovative Culture 572

Change 574

The Nature of Change 575 • Resistance to Change 575 • The Politics of

Change 578

Approaches to Managing Organizational Change 579

Lewin’s Three-Step Model 579 • Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan 580 • Action

Research 580 • Organizational Developme nt 581 • The Change Paradox 583

Summary 583

Implications for Managers 584

Point/Counterpoint Organizational Change Management Is Not Worth the Effort 585

Questions for Review 585

Experiential Exercise Culture Architects 586

Ethical Dilemma Toxic Culture 586

Case In cident Culture of Fear 587

17 Human Resource Systems and Practices 588

Recruitment 590

Applicant Attraction 591 • The Ubiquity of Referral Hiring 591 •

The Role of Recruiters 592 • Realistic Job Previews 593

Selection 594

How the Selection Process Works 594 • Initial Selection 594

Substantive and Contingent Selection 598

Written Tests 599 • Performance-

Simulation Tests 600 • Interviews 601 •

Contingent Selection Tests 602

Training and Development 603

Training Content 605 • Training Methods 605 • Evaluating

Effectiveness 607

Performance Management 607

What Do We Evaluate? 608 • Who Should Do the Evaluating? 610 •

Methods of Performance Evaluation 611 • Improving Performance

Evaluations 612

An Ethical Choice Eliminating Bias from Performance Reviews 614

Providing Performance Feedback 614

Myth or Science? The 24-Hour Workplace Is Harmful 615

Accessible Workplaces 615

Accommodations for Physical Disabilities 616 • Accommodations for

Hidden Disabilities 616

Human Resources (HR) Leadership 617

Toward a Better World Kawasaki: Learning from Each Other at Takumi Juku

and Manabiya 618

Communicating HR Practices 618 • Drafting and Enforcing Employment

Policies 619

Summary 620

Implications for Managers 621

Point/Counterpoint Employers Should Check Applicants’ Criminal

Backgrounds 622

Questions for Review 622

Experiential Exercise Designing a Virtual Assessment Center Exercise 623

Ethical Dilemma Should I Pay the Staff More and Reduce the Company’s Profit? 624

Case Incident Fired via Video Message 624

18 Stress and Health in Organizations 626

The Nature of Stress in Organizations 629

Stressors 630 • Strain 632 • Eustress 632

Physical Health at Work 633

Sleep 634 • Illness and Injury 634

Myth or Science? When You Are Working Hard, Sleep Is Optional 635

Mental Health at Work 636

Job Insecurity 636

Toward a Better World Freelancers Union: Advocating for Gig Workers Faced with

Consistent Job Insecurity 637

Workaholism 638 • Psychological Distress at Work 638

Mechanisms of Health and Stress 639

Conservation of Resources 639 • Effort-

Reward Imbalance Model 640 •

Job Demand-Control-Support Model 640 • Job Demands-Resources Model641

Work–Life Balance 643

The State of Work–Life Balance: A New Normal? 643 • Work–Life

Boundaries 643 • Work–Life Spillover 645 • Flexible and Supportive

Policies 647

Managing Stress and Health 648

Individual Approaches 649

An Ethical Choice Talking About Mental Health Without Overstepping

Boundaries 652

Organizational Approaches 653

Summary 656

Implications for Managers 657

Point/Counterpoint Companies Should Encourage Stress Reduction 658

Questions for Review 659

Experiential Exercise Micro-Stressors 659

Ethical Dilemma The Fear of Redundancy and Ceasing Operations 659Case

Incident Burnout Despite Flexibility: Working Parents and COVID-19 661

Appendix Research in Organizational Behavior 662

Comprehensive Cases 668

Glossary 681

Endnotes 691

Organization Index 780

Subject Index 783

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