Psychology in Your Life, 4th Edition PDF by Sarah Grison and Michael S. Gazzaniga

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Psychology in Your Life, 4th Edition

Sarah Grison and Michael S. Gazzaniga

Psychology In Your Life

 

CONTENTS IN BRIEF
Welcome to Psychology in Your Lifeviii

  1. Psychology in Your Life2
  2. The Role of Biology in Psychology46
  3. Consciousness92
  4. Development Across the Life Span134
  5. Sensation and Perception178
  6. Learning220
  7. Memory258
  8. Thinking and Intelligence302
  9. Motivation and Emotion342
  10. Sex, Gender, and Sexuality384
  11. Health and Well-Being424
  12. Social Psychology464
  13. Self and Personality502
  14. Psychological Disorders544
  15. Psychological Treatments592

Appendix A: How Can You Understand Data From Psychological Research?A-1

Appendix B: Answers to In-Chapter QuestionsB-1

 

CONTENTS

Meet the Authors vi

Welcome to Psychology in Your Life viii

Changes to the Fourth Edition xx

Acknowledgments xxii

Digital Tools for Instructors and Students xxvii

Psychology in Your Life 2

Why Is Psychology Important in Your Life? 4

1.1 Psychology Is a Science That Helps You Understand Your Mental

Activity, Behavior, and Brain Processes 4

1.2 Psychology Uses the Science of Learning to Help You Study Better 6

LEARNING TO LEARN INFOGRAPHIC: Six Strategies IMPACT

Your Learning 7

1.3 Psychology Develops Your Critical Thinking Skills 9

LEARNING TIP: Developing Critical Thinking Skills 11

1.4 Psychology Improves Your Life Personally and Professionally 13

What Key Principles Guide Psychology Today? 15

1.5 Psychologists Investigate Topics Across Five Interconnected Domains 15

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: What Can You Do With a

Degree in Psychology? 16

1.6 Psychology Is Becoming More Diverse 18

1.7 Psychologists Must Be Ethical in Their Research 23

How Do You Benefit From Psychological Research? 25

1.8 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method 25

1.9 Descriptive Methods Describe What Is Happening 29

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: The Hawthorne Effect 32

1.10 Correlational Methods Reveal Relationships 34

LEARNING TIP: Problems Determining Causality in Correlational

Methods 35

1.11 Experimental Methods Test Causation 37

LEARNING TIP: Understanding the Differences Between Dependent

and Independent Variables 39

Big Picture 43

Practice Test 45

The Role of Biology in Psychology 46

How Does Your Nervous System Work? 48

2.1 Your Nervous System Is the Basis of Your Mental Activity and Behavior 48

2.2 Neurons Communicate With Each Other in Your Nervous System 50

LEARNING TIP: Communication From Presynaptic Neuron to

Postsynaptic Neuron 53

2.3 Neurotransmitters Influence Your Mental Activity and Behavior 55

How Do the Parts of Your Brain Function? 59

2.4 Our Understanding of How the Brain Works Has Improved Over Time 59

2.5 The Hindbrain and Midbrain House Basic Programs for Your Survival 62

2.6 Forebrain Subcortical Structures Control Your Motivations and Emotions 64

2.7 The Cerebral Cortex of the Forebrain Processes Your Complex Mental Activity 66

LEARNING TO LEARN INFOGRAPHIC: IMPACT Your Learning

By: Monitoring 70

2.8 The Hemispheres Work Together With Some Specialization 72

2.9 Using Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Succeed If You Have a

Learning Disability? 75

How Does Your Brain Communicate With Your Body? 76

2.10 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic

Systems 77

LEARNING TIP: Remembering the Autonomic Nervous System 77

2.11 The Endocrine System Affects Your Behavior Through Hormones 79

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Can Understanding

Biological Psychology Help You in Your Job? 81

How Do Nature and Nurture Affect Your Brain? 81

2.12 Your Genes Affect Your Mental Activity and Behavior 82

2.13 Your Genes Interact With Your Environment to Influence You 83

2.14 Your Environment Changes Your Brain 85

Big Picture 88

Practice Test 90

Consciousness 92

What Does It Mean to Be Conscious? 94

3.1 Consciousness Is Your Subjective Experience 94

LEARNING TIP: Understanding Objectivity and Subjectivity 95

3.2 Consciousness Results From Brain Activity 96

3.3 Consciousness Involves Attention 99

3.4 Unconscious Processing Sometimes Affects Behavior 101

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Inattentional Blindness Studies 102

How Does Sleep Affect Consciousness? 104

3.5 Consciousness Changes During Sleep 104

3.6 People Dream While Sleeping 107

3.7 Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior 110

3.8 Using Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Develop Better Sleep Habits? 112

3.9 Sleep Disorders Are Relatively Common Throughout Life 113

How Do Hypnosis and Meditation Alter Consciousness? 115

3.10 Attention to Suggestions May Alter Consciousness in Hypnosis 116

3.11 Meditation Alters Consciousness and Brain Functioning 118

How Do Drugs Alter Consciousness? 119

EVALUATING PSYCHOLOGY IN THE REAL WORLD: You’re Stressed

Out . . . Can Meditation Help? 120

3.12 Psychoactive Drugs Affect the Brain 121

3.13 Substance Use Disorder Has Physical and Psychological Aspects 126

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Can Understanding

Consciousness Help You in Your Job? 128

Big Picture 130

Practice Test 132

Development Across the Life Span 134

How Does Development Happen in the Womb? 136

4.1 Humans Develop in Three Key Areas Starting in the Prenatal Period 136

LEARNING TO LEARN INFOGRAPHIC: IMPACT Your Learning

By: Improving 137

4.2 There Are External Threats to Prenatal Development 140

How Do Infants and Children Develop? 142

4.3 Infants and Children Change Physically 142

4.4 Infants and Children Change Socially and Emotionally 145

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Harlow’s Monkeys and Their

“Mothers” 148

4.5 Infants and Children Change Cognitively 149

LEARNING TIP: Assimilation and Accommodation 150

4.6 Language Develops in an Orderly Way 154

How Do Adolescents Develop? 156

4.7 Adolescents Develop Physically 157

4.8 Adolescents Develop Socially and Emotionally 158

4.9 Using Psychology in Your Life: What Roles Do Peers Play in

Development? 161

4.10 Adolescents Develop Cognitively 163

How Do Adults Develop? 165

4.11 Emerging Adulthood Is a New Developmental Period 165

4.12 Bodies and Minds Change in Adulthood 166

4.13 Adults Develop Lifelong Social and Emotional Bonds 169

Big Picture 174

Practice Test 176

Sensation and Perception 178

How Do You Sense and Perceive Your World? 180

5.1 Your Senses Detect Physical Stimuli, and Your Brain Processes

Perception 180

5.2 There Must Be a Certain Amount of a Stimulus for You to Detect It 182

How Do You See? 185

5.3 Sensory Receptors in Your Eyes Detect Light 185

5.4 You Perceive Color Based on Physical Aspects of Light 187

5.5 You Perceive Objects by Organizing Visual Information 191

LEARNING TIP: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing 193

5.6 When You Perceive Depth, You Can Locate Objects in Space 194

5.7 Cues in Your Brain and in the World Let You Perceive Motion 195

5.8 You Understand That Objects Remain Constant Even When Cues Change 196

How Do You Hear? 198

5.9 Receptors in Your Ears Detect Sound Waves 199

5.10 Using Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Avoid Damage to Your

Hearing From Listening to Loud Music With Earbuds? 200

5.11 You Perceive Sound Based on Physical Aspects of Sound Waves 202

How Are You Able to Taste and Smell? 205

5.12 Receptors in Your Taste Buds Detect Chemical Molecules 205

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Infant Taste Preferences

Affected by Mother’s Diet 208

5.13 Your Olfactory Receptors Detect Odorants 208

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Can Understanding

Sensation and Perception Help You in Your Career? 209

How Do You Feel Touch and Pain? 212

5.14 Receptors in Your Skin Detect Temperature and Pressure 213

5.15 You Detect Pain in Your Skin and Throughout Your Body 214

Big Picture 217

Practice Test 219

Learning 220

How Do You Learn? 222

6.1 You Learn From Experience 222

6.2 You Learn in Three Ways 223

How Do You Learn Through Classical Conditioning? 225

6.3 Through Classical Conditioning, You Learn That Stimuli Are Related 225

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Pavlov’s Classical

Conditioning 227

LEARNING TIP: Understanding Classical Conditioning 228

6.4 Learning Varies in Classical Conditioning 229

6.5 You Can Learn Fear Responses Through Classical Conditioning 231

6.6 Adaptation and Cognition Influence Classical Conditioning 232

How Do You Learn Through Operant Conditioning? 234

6.7 Through Operant Conditioning, You Learn the Consequences of Your

Actions 235

6.8 You Can Improve Learning Through Reinforcement 237

6.9 Both Reinforcement and Punishment Can Influence Behavior 239

LEARNING TIP: The Four Types of Reinforcement and Punishment 240

LEARNING TIP: The Four Schedules of Reinforcement 242

6.10 Positive Punishment Is Often Ineffective 243

6.11 Using Psychology in Your Life: Can Behavior Modification Help You

Learn to Exercise Regularly? 245

6.12 Biology and Cognition Influence Operant Conditioning 247

How Do You Learn by Watching Others? 249

6.13 There Are Three Ways You Learn by Watching Others 250

EVALUATING PSYCHOLOGY IN THE REAL WORLD: Does

Playing Violent Video Games Cause Children to Become More

Violent? 252

6.14 Biology Influences Observational Learning 254

Big Picture 255

Practice Test 257

Memory 258

How Do You Create Memories? 260

7.1 You Create Memories by Processing Information 260

7.2 Your Memories Are Unique 261

How Do You Maintain Memories Over Time? 264

7.3 You Maintain Information in Three Memory Stores 264

7.4 Sensory Storage Lets You Maintain Information Very Briefly 266

7.5 Working Memory Lets You Actively Maintain Information in Short-

Term Storage 267

7.6 Long-Term Storage Lets You Maintain Memories Relatively

Permanently 269

LEARNING TO LEARN INFOGRAPHIC: IMPACT Your Learning

By: Thinking Deeply 271

7.7 Your Long-Term Storage Is Organized Based on Meaning 273

What Types of Long-Term Memories Do You Store? 276

7.8 There Are Two Types of Amnesia 276

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Can Understanding

Memory Help You Succeed at Your Job? 277

7.9 Your Explicit Memories Involve Conscious Effort 279

7.10 Your Implicit Memories Function Without Conscious Effort 281

7.11 Memory Is Processed by Several Regions of Your Brain 283

How Do You Retrieve Memories? 286

7.12 Retrieval Cues Help You Access Your Memories 287

7.13 You Forget Some of Your Memories 289

EVALUATING PSYCHOLOGY IN THE REAL WORLD: Can Brain

Training Improve Your Memory? 290

LEARNING TIP: Understanding the Prefix “Retro” 292

7.14 Your Memories Can Be Distorted 293

Big Picture 298

Practice Test 300

Thinking and Intelligence 302

What Is Thinking? 304

8.1 Thinking Is the Mental Manipulation of Representations 304

8.2 Schemas and Concepts Are the Basis of Thinking 306

8.3 Schemas Are the Basis of Stereotypes 308

How Do You Use Thinking? 309

8.4 Biased Reasoning Can Lead to Faulty Beliefs 310

8.5 How You Think Biases Decision Making 312

8.6 Using Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Be Satisfied With Big

Decisions? 316

8.7 You Solve Problems to Achieve Goals 318

8.8 You Overcome Obstacles to Solve Problems 321

What Is Intelligence? 322

8.9 One General Factor May Underlie Intelligence 322

8.10 There May Be Alternative Types of Intelligence 325

8.11 Intelligence Is a Result of Genes and Environment 329

How Is Intelligence Measured? 331

8.12 Intelligence Is Assessed With Psychometric Tests 331

LEARNING TIP: Validity and Reliability 334

8.13 Intelligence Is Associated With Cognitive Performance 335

Big Picture 338

Practice Test 340

Motivation and Emotion 342

What Motivates Your Behavior? 344

9.1 Many Factors Influence Motivation 344

9.2 Some Behaviors Are Motivated for Their Own Sake 349

LEARNING TO LEARN INFOGRAPHIC: IMPACT Your Learning

By: Practicing 351

What Are Your Most Important Motivated Behaviors? 352

9.3 Motivation to Eat Is Affected by Biology 352

LEARNING TIP: Biological Mechanisms That Motivate Eating 353

9.4 Motivation to Eat Is Also Influenced by Learning 355

9.5 People Have a Need to Belong 356

9.6 People Have a Need to Achieve Long-Term Goals 359

How Do You Experience Emotions? 361

9.7 Emotions Are Personal but Labeled and Described Consistently 362

9.8 Three Major Theories Explain Your Emotions 364

9.9 Your Body and Brain Influence Your Emotions 367

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Testing the Two-Factor

Theory 368

9.10 Most People Try to Regulate Their Emotional States 372

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Can Understanding

Motivation and Emotion Help You Work With Customers? 373

How Do Emotions Support Social Relationships? 375

9.11 You Use Facial Expressions to Interpret Emotions 375

9.12 Emotions Strengthen Your Interpersonal Relations 379

Big Picture 381

Practice Test 383

Sex, Gender, and Sexuality 384

What Are the Aspects of Our Biological Sex? 386

10.1 Genetics and Hormones Are Aspects of Biological Sex 386

LEARNING TIP: Biological Aspects of Sex 387

10.2 Some People Experience Variations in Biological Aspects of Sex 391

How Do We Experience Gender? 393

10.3 Thoughts About Gender Affect Our Perceptions, Expectations, and

Actions 394

10.4 Gender Identity Is How You Think and Feel About Your Own Gender 397

LEARNING TIP: Gender Schemas Include Information About

Gender Roles and Influence Gender Identity 398

10.5 People Vary in Gender Identity 399

10.6 Using Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Support People of All

Gender Identities? 402

How Do We Vary in Sexual Orientation? 403

10.7 Variations in Sexual Orientation Are Common 403

10.8 Sexual Orientation Has a Biological Basis 406

LEARNING TIP: Three Potential Biological Contributors to Sexual

Orientation 409

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Can You Support

People With Variations in Sex, Gender, and Sexuality? 410

What Motivates Us to Have Sexual Relations (or Not To)? 411

10.9 Biology Influences the Motivation for Sexual Activity 411

10.10 Environmental Context Influences the Motivation for Sexual Activity 415

10.11 Individual Differences Influence the Motivation for Sexual Activity 418

Big Picture 421

Practice Test 423

Health and Well-Being 424

What Affects Your Health? 426

11.1 Biology, Psychology, and Social Factors Influence Your Health 426

11.2 Obesity Has Many Health Consequences 429

11.3 Exercise Benefits You Physically, Cognitively, and Emotionally 434

11.4 Sexually Transmitted Infections Can Be Prevented by Practicing Safer Sex 435

11.5 Smoking Is Dangerous to Your Health 438

How Does Stress Affect Your Health? 441

11.6 There Is Stress in Daily Life 441

LEARNING TIP: Stressors, Responses, and Mediating Factors 442

11.7 You Can Have Several Responses to Stress 443

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Stress and the Immune

System 446

How Do Mediating Factors Affect Your Stress? 448

11.8 Personality and Emotional States Influence the Impact of Stress on

Heart Disease 448

11.9 Coping Mediates the Impact of Stress 450

11.10 Using Psychology in Your Life: How Can You Reduce Exam

Anxiety? 452

Can a Positive Attitude Keep You Healthy? 453

11.11 Positive Psychology Emphasizes Well-Being 453

EVALUATING PSYCHOLOGY IN THE REAL WORLD: Can

Petting a Therapy Dog Increase Your Sense of Well-Being? 455

11.12 Social Support Is Associated With Good Health 457

11.13 Several Strategies Can Help You Stay Healthy 459

Big Picture 461

Practice Test 463

Social Psychology 464

How Do You Think About Other People? 466

12.1 You Tend to Make Snap Judgments About Other People 466

12.2 You Make Attributions About Other People 467

LEARNING TIP: Attributions and the Actor/Observer Bias 469

12.3 You Tend to Stereotype Other People 469

12.4 Stereotypes Can Lead to Prejudice and Discrimination 472

LEARNING TO LEARN INFOGRAPHIC: IMPACT Your Learning

By: Connecting 473

How Do Your Attitudes Affect You? 475

12.5 You Form Attitudes Through Experience and Socialization 476

12.6 Discrepancies Between Attitudes and Behavior Lead to Dissonance 478

12.7 Your Attitudes Can Be Changed Through Persuasion 480

How Do Other People Influence You? 482

12.8 Groups Affect Your Behavior 482

12.9 You Conform to and Comply With Others 484

12.10 You Probably Obey People Who Have Authority 487

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Milgram’s Shock

Experiments on Obedience 488

12.11 You May Hurt or Help Other People 490

How Can You Develop Strong Relationships? 494

12.12 Situations and Personalities Affect Your Relationships 494

12.13 Love Is a Key Part of Romantic Relationships 496

Big Picture 499

Practice Test 501

Self and Personality 502

How Do You Know Yourself? 504

13.1 Your Self-Concept Is What You Know and Believe About Yourself 504

13.2 People Differ in How They Value Themselves 506

EVALUATING PSYCHOLOGY IN THE REAL WORLD: Can Self-

Compassion Help You Feel Better? 509

13.3 You Try to Create a Positive Sense of Self 510

13.4 Your Sense of Self Is Influenced by Cultural Factors 513

How Can You Understand Personality? 514

13.5 Psychodynamic Theory Emphasizes Unconscious Conflicts 515

LEARNING TIP: Id, Superego, and Ego 518

13.6 Humanistic Approaches Emphasize Goodness in People 518

13.7 Social Cognitive Approaches Focus on How Thoughts Shape

Personality 520

13.8 Trait Approaches Describe Characteristics 522

LEARNING TIP: Remembering the Big Five 523

13.9 Using Psychology in Your Life: Do Personalities Matter in Roommate

Relationships? 524

How Does Biology Affect Personality? 525

13.10 Personality Has a Biological Basis 526

13.11 Personality Is Influenced by Genes 527

13.12 Temperament Is Innate 528

13.13 Personality Stability Is Influenced by Biology and Situation 530

How Can Personality Be Assessed? 533

13.14 Several Methods Are Used to Assess Personality 533

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Can Understanding

People’s Personalities Become a Career? 534

13.15 Behavior Is Influenced by Personality and Situation 538

Big Picture 540

Practice Test 542

Psychological Disorders 544

What Is a Psychological Disorder? 546

14.1 Disorders Interfere With Our Lives 547

LEARNING TIP: Limitations of the Criteria for Disordered

Emotions, Thoughts, and/or Behaviors 548

14.2 There Are Two General Ways to View the Causes of Disorders 549

14.3 Disordered Thoughts, Emotions, and Behaviors Can Be Assessed and

Categorized 551

How Do People Experience Disorders of Emotion? 555

14.4 Anxiety Disorders Make People Fearful and Tense 555

LEARNING TO LEARN INFOGRAPHIC: IMPACT Your Learning

By: Attending 557

14.5 Some Disorders Involve Unwanted and Intrusive Thoughts That

Increase Anxiety 559

14.6 Depressive Disorders Involve Sad, Empty, or Irritable Mood 562

14.7 Many Factors Influence the Development of Depressive Disorders 563

14.8 Using Psychology in Your Life: What Should You Do If You Think a

Friend or Loved One Might Be Considering Suicide 565

14.9 Bipolar Disorders Involve Mania 567

How Do People Experience Disorders of Thought? 569

14.10 Schizophrenia Involves a Disconnection From Reality 569

14.11 Schizophrenia Is Caused by Biological and Environmental Factors 572

How Do People Experience Disorders of Self? 574

14.12 Personality Disorders Are Maladaptive Ways of Relating to the World 575

14.13 Dissociative Disorders Involve Disruptions in the Sense of Self 578

14.14 Eating Disorders Involve Distortions or Distress About Body Image 580

What Disorders Affect Children? 582

14.15 Children May Experience Neurodevelopmental Disorders 582

14.16 Autism Spectrum Disorder Involves Social Deficits and Restricted

Interests 583

14.17 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Is a Disruptive Impulse

Control Disorder 586

Big Picture 588

Practice Test 591

Psychological Treatments 592

How Are Psychological Disorders Treated? 594

15.1 Some Types of Psychotherapy Focus on Providing Insight 595

15.2 Behavioral and Cognitive Treatments Aim to Change Thoughts,

Feelings, and Behaviors Directly 597

15.3 The Context of Therapy Matters 599

15.4 Biological Therapies Are Effective for Certain Disorders 600

15.5 Scientific Evidence Indicates Which Treatments Are Safe and Effective 603

15.6 Various Providers Assist in Treating Psychological Disorders 604

15.7 Using Psychology in Your Life: How Do You Find a Provider Who

Can Help You? 606

PUTTING PSYCHOLOGY TO WORK: How Do You Become a

Counselor or Clinical Psychologist? 608

What Are the Most Effective Treatments? 609

15.8 Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Are Best Treated with

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy 609

15.9 Many Effective Treatments Are Available for Depressive Disorders 614

THE METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY: Mayberg’s Study of Deep

Brain Stimulation for Depression 618

15.10 Psychotropic Medications Are Most Effective for Bipolar Disorders 618

15.11 Atypical Antipsychotic Medications Are the Best Treatment for

Schizophrenia 620

Can Personality Disorders Be Treated? 621

15.12 Dialectical Behavior Therapy Is the Best Treatment for Borderline

Personality Disorder 622

15.13 Antisocial Personality Disorder Is Extremely Difficult to Treat 623

How Can Disorders Be Treated in Children and Adolescents? 624

15.14 Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Benefit from Structured

Behavior Therapy 625

15.15 Children with ADHD Can Benefit from Various Approaches 626

Big Picture 629

Practice Test 631

Appendix A: How Can You Understand Data From Psychological Research? A-1

A.1 Research Data Provide a Description of What Occurred A-1

A.2 Research Data Can Reveal Relationships Between Variables A-5

A.3 Research Data Reveal Whether Results Are Meaningful or Just Due to

Chance A-8

Big Picture A-12

Practice Test A-13

Appendix B: Answers to In-Chapter Questions B-1

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Permissions Acknowledgments P-1

Name Index N-1

Subject Index S-1

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