Survey of Historic Costume by Phyllis G. Tortora


Survey of Historic Costume
by Phyllis G. Tortora

Survey of Historic Costume

We are delighted to present the sixth edition of Survey of Historic Costume, now celebrating its 25th anniversary as a bestselling textbook for the study of fashion history. We are pleased to introduce new co-author Sara B. Marcketti, Associate Professor at Iowa State University, who has taught History of European and American Dress and Twentieth Century Dress History courses since 2005 and is an associate director of the university’s Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching. She brings a wealth of scholarship, knowledge, and teaching experience to this edition. Marcketti is delighted to join esteemed Professor Emerita Phyllis Tortora in this revision. This edition is supported by a new multimedia resource—STUDIO: Survey of Historic Costume—which provides a digital study tool directly related to the content of the book, including online self-quizzes with results and personalized study tips, flashcards with definitions and image identification, chapter videos and images, maps, a timeline, and activities to help students master concepts and improve grades.

One goal of this edition is to refine the historic content and help students draw connections between themes and dress history. We have decreased the length of part openers and made chapters a more manageable length. A new Chapter 20, The New Millennium, places greater emphasis on major fashion events of this century, making this book as current as possible and more relevant to the study of fashion today.

In addition to streamlining and updating the text for 2014, this edition includes two new features. Decorative and Fine Arts tables of previous editions have been incorporated into new, illustrated chapter-opening timelines. Each timeline spread quickly orients the student in the era’s history, including political, economic, social, technological, decorative and fine arts, and cultural events.

Survey of Historic Costume is a basic text for readers who need an overview of the history of costume in the Euro-American world. We make no attempt to survey the vast topic of historic costume in all parts of the world. Our purpose is to present a survey of Euro-American dress rather than an infinitely detailed picture. At the same time, it is our intention to make that picture as complete as possible within the limitations of space. Thus, another key change to this edition is introduction of global dress through a new Global Connections boxed feature, which demonstrates cross-cultural interactions of dress and clothing.

The consistent organization and parallel contents across chapters provide a systematic way for students to read and learn the information. Each chapter contains the following features.

The one-page chapter chronologies of previous editions have been expanded in this edition to full-spread, illustrated timelines, which coordinate with six themes that appear in the chapters: fashion and textiles; politics and conflicts; decorative and fine arts; economics and trade; technology and ideas; and religion and society. Illustrations from the chapter-opening timeline appear again at relevant points in the chapter, drawing clear connections to chapter topics and adding depth to the chapter.

Chapter Organization
We must view the dress of each era within the context of the period. To assist readers who may have a limited background in history, a brief summary of the major historical developments related to the chapter is provided both in the chapter opener pages and in the text.

Clothing is a part of the basic equipment for everyday life, and so each chapter makes note of some of the important aspects of the lives of the people of the time. Where the arts, specific individuals, events, or societal values can be seen to have influenced styles, they are discussed. The technology and economy of the production and distribution of fabrics often influence dress; therefore, changes in technology for the making of cloth and items of dress, and in the economic systems of production and distribution, are noted. As the fashion industry becomes more complex, changes in its organization and function are stressed.

After the setting has been delineated, specific styles of each period worn by men, women, and children are described. Organization and contents are parallel in all chapters, and all elements of dress, ranging from undergarments to accessories, are included for every period. In this way, a rather detailed picture of costume can be provided even within the space limitations imposed on a single volume. Each chapter concludes with a summary of the themes evident in the dress of the period.

The history of dress is in major part a visual history. In this sixth edition, 90 percent of the photographs are full color, with black and white reserved for important illustrations not available in color.

Readers need depictions of costume from original source materials not only to understand unfamiliar terms, but also to supplement the general, survey approach of the text. The captions of the illustrations not only identify various parts of the costume and provide the contemporary names for elements of the styles, but also identify the aspects of the pictures that provide supporting evidence to the costume historian of the nature of costume in this period. The material in the captions of illustrations is as important as the contents of the book and should be read as carefully as the text.

Survey includes both illustrated and descriptive tables. Illustrated tables summarize material briefly and effectively. These are usually line drawings based on primary source materials. We have chosen to use clean line drawings without color, because these can often provide a clearer idea of the structure of the item than a photograph. Illustrated Tables depict important accessories, footwear, and headwear that were predominant during the period, and Visual Summary Tables show clear line drawings of the fashionable silhouettes and details of the period. Types of descriptive tables include those listing names of style, influential designers, and fashion influences from the period.

Global Connections
Global Connections is a new boxed feature that illustrates how items from one culture have influenced another. Usually, items will relate to influences on Euro-American dress, but in a few examples readers will see the influence traveling in another direction. The photographs are of items that originated or were in use during the time periods discussed in each chapter. Our objective in these features is to make readers aware that no culture, present or past, is without some connections to other cultures around the globe. By showing images and physical objects that demonstrate cross-cultural influence, students are able to holistically understand the ways in which the world has influenced Western dress.

Contemporary Comments
Each chapter includes at least one box in which comments from contemporary sources on some aspect of clothing are reproduced. These quotations are intended to provide readers with a flavor of the attitudes toward clothing that individuals of the period held as well as contemporary descriptions.

Modern Influences
This feature appears throughout the book and depicts a recent fashion that has been influenced by some aspect of dress from the period surveyed in that chapter.

Notes and References
A list of references used by the authors is placed at the end of each chapter.

Historic costume reference books and materials (particularly for some of the early periods where actual records are confusing, contradictory, and scarce) show marked differences in terminology and content. We have attempted to present as accurate a summary as possible and one that we hope is free from the tendency to present largely apocryphal stories of the origins of styles as fact. When such material is introduced, it is clearly labeled as questionable or as legend.

In this text, the terms clothes and clothing are synonymous and mean wearing apparel. Dress is a general term that includes not only garments and accessories, but also aspects of personal appearance that can be changed, such as grooming, and management of parts of the body such as hair, manipulation through piercing, decoration by tattooing, or addition of cosmetics and fragrances. Style is the predominant form of dress of any given period or culture. Styles may persist for very long or shorter periods of time. The term fashion is used synonymously with style after the latter part of the medieval period. It implies styles of relatively short duration. Costume is used as a synonym for dress by those who work in the museum field and by many scholars who study historic dress. Some scholars prefer the use of the word dress, because to many people, costume means dress used in the theater, in dance, or for masquerade.

Several tools have been provided for readers. Many of the words for items of historic costume are not English terms. Where the pronunciation of these terms is not obvious, a phonetic pronunciation of the word is provided in parentheses just after the word. The index is organized so that it can be used as a glossary of terms. Terms printed in boldface type are defined within the text; the page numbers printed in bold type immediately after these words in the index are the pages on which these words are defined or explained.

A bibliography at the end of the book lists some of the many books written about historic costume. This bibliography does not include books dealing with techniques of theatrical costuming or sociocultural aspects of dress.


Preface xiii
New Online Student Resources xvi
Acknowledgments xvii

Chapter One

Introduction 1
The Origins of Dress 1
Limitations to the Design of Garments 3
Common Themes in Costume History across Time 4
Sources of Evidence for the Study of Historic Costume 10
Summary 12


The Ancient World c. 3000 BCE – 400 CE 14
Table I.1 Civilizations of the Ancient World 16

Chapter Two

The Ancient Middle East c. 3500–600 BCE 18
Historical Background 20
Differences in the Egyptian and Mesopotamian Civilizations 22
Mesopotamian Civilization 23
Sources of Evidence about Sumerian Costume 25
Mesopotamian/Sumerian Costume: c. 3500–2500 BCE 25
Costume of Mesopotamians/Later Sumerians and Babylonians: c. 2500–1000 BCE 26
Costume of Mesopotamians/Later Babylonians and the Assyrians: c. 1000–600 BCE 28
Global Connections 29
Egyptian Civilization 32
Sources of Evidence for Egyptian Costume 33
Contributions of Artisans to Costume 35
Egyptian Costume: c. 3000–300 BCE 36
Table 2.1 Egyptian Garments 37
Contemporary Comments 2.1 38
Illustrated Table 2.1 Some of the Headdresses
Worn in Ancient Egypt 46
Summary 47
Visual Summary Table 48
Legacies of Mesopotamian and Egyptian Dress 49

Chapter Three
Crete and Greece c. 2900–100 BCE 50
Historical Background: Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations 52
Social Organization and Material Culture 53
Minoan Costume: 2900–1100 BCE 54
Transitions in the Dominant Styles 57
Illustrated Table 3.1 Examples of Hairstyles and Headdress Worn by Men and Women in Greece 58
Global Connections 59
Historical Background: Greek Civilization 59
Sources of Evidence for the Study of Greek Costume 64
Greek Costume: 650–100 BCE 64
Table 3.1 Types of Chitons Worn by Greek Men and Women 65
Contemporary Comments 3.1 67
Contemporary Comments 3.2 69
Summary 71
Legacies of Greek Dress 72
Visual Summary Table 73

Chapter Four

Etruria and Rome c. 800 BCE–400 CE 74
Historical Background: The Etruscans 76
Etruscan Costume: c. 800–200 BCE 77
Costume Components for Children 80
Historical Background: The Romans 80
Table 4.1 The Appearance and Significance of Various Types of Togas 83
Sources of Evidence for the Study of Roman Costume 84
Global Connections 85
Roman Costume for Men and Women 85
Contemporary Comments 4.1 87
Roman Costume: 500 BCE–400 CE 89
Illustrated Table 4.1 Examples of Hairstyles and Headdress Worn by Men and Women during the Roman Empire 93
Costume Components for Children 94
Costume for Specialized Occupations and Occasions 95
Changes in Costume 96
Summary 96
Visual Summary Table 97
Legacies of Etruscan and Roman Dress 98

Part Two

The Middle Ages c. 330–1500 100

Chapter Five

The Early Middle Ages c. 330–1500 106
Historical Background: The Byzantine Period c. 330–1453 108
Sources of Evidence about Costume 110
Byzantine Costume: 330–1453 111
Global Connections 112
Historical Background: Western Europe from the Fall of the Roman Empire to 900 116
Sources of Evidence about Costume 117
Western European Costume: Fall of the Roman Empire to 900 118
The Merovingian and Carolingian Dynasties 118
Clerical Costume: The Early Middle Ages 119
Contemporary Comments 5.1 120
Historical Background: The 10th–13th
Centuries 122
Factors Related to Developments in Costume 125
Sources of Evidence about Costume 127
European Costume: The 10th and 11th Centuries 127
European Costume: The 12th Century 131
Contemporary Comments 5.2 134
European Costume in the 13th Century 135
Accessories of Dress for Men and Women: 10th–13th Centuries 138
Military Costume 138
Summary 140
Legacies of Byzantine and Early Medieval Styles 140
Visual Summary Table 141

Chapter Six
The Late Middle Ages c. 1300–1500 144
Historical Background 146
Medieval Social Structure 147
Global Connections 150
Contemporary Comments 6.1 152
Fabrics and Tailors 152
Sources of Evidence about Costume 153
Fashion Change Becomes Evident 154
Costume: 14th Century 154
Illustrated Table 6.1 Late Middle Ages
Accessories 159
Costume: 15th Century 162
Contemporary Comments 6.2 162
Costume for Children: 14th and 15th
Centuries 170
Illustrated Table 6.2 Evolution and Styles of 15th-Century Headdress for Women 171
Dress for Rites of Passage 172
Costume for Specialized Occupations 172
Summary 173
Visual Summary Table 174
Legacies of Styles from the Late Middle Ages 176


The Renaissance c. 1400–1600 178

Chapter Seven

The Italian Renaissance c. 1400–1600 182
Historical Background 184
Life in Renaissance Italy 184
Cross-Cultural Influences from the Middle East 186
Sources of Evidence about Costume 186
Global Connections 187
Costume: 1400–1600 187
Contemporary Comments 7.1 188
Illustrated Table 7.1 Italian Renaissance: Accessories 193
Costume: 16th Century 196
Regional Distinctions in Costume for Men and Women: 15th and 16th Centuries 198
Contemporary Comments 7.2 199
Costume for Children during the Italian Renaissance 200
Summary 200
Legacy of Italian Renaissance Styles 201
Visual Summary Table 203
Chapter Eight
The Northern Renaissance c. 1500–1600 204
Historical Background 206
Factors in the Dissemination of Fashion Information 208
Table 8.1 Royal Intermarriages during the 16th Century 209
Cross-Cultural Influences from the Middle East 209
Sources of Evidence for the Study of Costume 211
Costume for Men: 16th Century 211
Costume for Women: 16th Century 216
Contemporary Comments 8.1 217
Costume Accessories for Men and Women: 16th Century 222
Illustrated Table 8.1 Northern Renaissance: Accessories 224
Costume for Children: 16th Century 226
Summary 227
Global Connections 227
Visual Summary Table 228
Legacy of 16th-Century Dress 229
Baroque and Rococo c. 1600–1800 230
The Arts during the Baroque and Rococo Periods 231
Expanding Trade with East Asia 233
The Cotton Trade with India 233
The Industrial Revolution 234
The Consumer Society and the Acceleration of Fashion Change 234
Chapter Nine
The Seventeenth Century 1600–1700 236
Historical Background 238
Social Life during the 17th Century 240
Some Distinctive Costume Traditions 241
Production and Acquisition of Textiles and Clothing 243
Sources of Evidence of Historic Costume 243
Costume for Men: 17th Century 244
Table 9.1 Terms Describing Men’s Trouser-type Garments: 16th Century to 19th Century 245
Illustrated Table 9.1 17th-Century Accessories 248
Contemporary Comments 9.1 251
Global Connections 252
Costume for Women: 17th Century 253
Contemporary Comments 9.2 258
Costume for Children: 17th Century 259
Summary 262
Visual Summary Table 263
Legacies of 17th-Century Styles 264
Chapter Ten
The Eighteenth Century 1700–1790 266
Historical Background 268
18th-Century French Society 269
18th-Century English Society 270
Contemporary Comments 10.1 271
The American Colonies in the 18th Century 272
Production and Acquisition of Clothing and Textiles 272
Influences on Costume in the 18th Century 274
Sources of Information about Costume 274
Costume for Men: 18th Century 274
Contemporary Comments 10.2 275
Global Connections 280
Costume for Women: 18th Century 281
Illustrated Table 10.1 18th-Century Accessories 282
Illustrated Table 10.2 Typical Women’s Hairstyles and Headdress in the 18th Century 286
Contemporary Comments 10.3 288
Costumes for Active Sports for Men and Women: The 18th Century 291
Costume for Children: The 18th Century 292
Summary 294
Visual Summary Table 295
Legacies of 18th-Century Dress 296
The Nineteenth Century c. 1800–1900 298
France 299
England 299
Italy and Austria 299
The United States 300
Immigration 300
Clothing of Indigenous Peoples 300
Industrialization 301
Textiles from India 301
Resumption of Trade with Japan 301
Dress Reform for Women 302
Changes in Clothing for Men 303
Chapter Eleven
The Directoire Period and the Empire Period 1790–1820 304
Historical Background 306
The Arts and Costume Styles of the Period 311
Contemporary Comments 11.1 312
Global Connections 313
The Revolution in Men’s Clothes 314
Production and Acquisition of Clothing and Textiles 314
Sources of Information about Costume 314
Directoire and Empire Periods 315
Illustrated Table 11.1 Typical Women’s Hairstyles and Headdress in the Empire Period 318
Illustrated Table 11.2 Empire Period: Accessories 319
Costume Components for Men 320
Costume for Children: The Empire Period 322
Summary 323
Visual Summary Table 324
Legacies of Empire Style Costume 324
Chapter Twelve
The Romantic Period 1820–1850 326
Historical Background 328
Women’s Social Roles and Clothing Styles 330
Manufacture and Acquisition of Clothing and Textiles 331
Sources of Evidence about Costume 331
Costume: The Romantic Period, 1820–1850 332
Illustrated Table 12.1 Examples of Women’s Hairstyles and Headdress: 1820–1850 337
Global Connections 340
Illustrated Table 12.2 Romantic Period: Accessories 341
Costume for Children 346
Clothing for Slaves in North America 347
Contemporary Comments 12.1 349
Summary 351
Legacies of Romantic Period Costume Styles 351
Visual Summary Table 352
Chapter Thirteen
The Crinoline Period 1850–1870 354
Historical Background 356
Worth and the Paris Couture 356
Production of Clothing: The Sewing Machine 360
Contemporary Comments 13.1 361
Early Attempts at Dress Reform: The “Bloomer” Costume 361
Gymnastics for Women 363
Sources of Evidence about Costume 363
Costume for Men and Women: The Crinoline Period 363
Illustrated Table 13.1 Selected Undergarments for Women, Men, and Children: 1850–1870 365
Illustrated Table 13.2 Typical Women’s Hairstyles and Headdress: 1850–1870 371
Global Connections 372
Illustrated Table 13.3 Accessories: Crinoline Period, 1850–1870 373
Costume for Children 376
Summary 378
Visual Summary Table 379
Legacies of Crinoline Period Costume Styles 380
Chapter Fourteen
The Bustle Period and the Nineties 1870–1900 382
Historical Background: 1870–1890 384
Historical Background: 1890–1900 384
Social Life: 1870–1900 384
Sports for Women 385
The Visual Arts and Costume 387
Sources of Evidence about Costume 390
Costume: The Bustle Period, 1870–1890 390
Contemporary Comments 14.1 391
Illustrated Table 14.1 Selected Undergarments for Women, Men, and Children: 1870–1900 394
Global Connections 398
Illustrated Table 14.2 Selected Hats and Hairstyles for Women: 1870–1900 400
Illustrated Table 14.3 Selected Footwear for Women and Men: 1870–1900 401
Costume: The Nineties, 1890–1900 402
Illustrated Table 14.4 Bustle Period and Nineties Accessories: 1870–1900 403
Costume for Children 409
Table 14.1 Typical Stages in the Acquisition of Adult Clothing in the Late 19th Century 411
Mourning Costume: 1850–1900 411
Summary 412
Visual Summary Table 413
Legacies of Bustle and Nineties Costume Styles 414
From the Twentieth to the Twenty-first Century 1900–2014 416
Art and Costume 418
Globalization of Fashion 418
New Media Depictions of Dress 419
Chapter Fifteen
The Edwardian Period and World War I 1900–1920 420
Historical Background 422
World War I 423
Contemporary Comments 15.1 425
Influences on Fashion 426
Table 15.1 Haute Couture Designers: 1900–1920 428
Asian Art Styles 428
Global Connections 429
The Production and Acquisition of Clothing 430
Sources of Information about Costume 431
Costume: 1900–1920 431
Illustrated Table 15.1 Selected Undergarments for Women, Men, and Children: 1900–1920 433
Illustrated Table 15.2 Selected Hairstyles and Hats for Women: 1900–1920 436
Illustrated Table 15.3 Selected Examples of Footwear for Women: 1900–1920 437
Illustrated Table 15.4 Accessories: 1900–1920 439
Costume Components for Men 444
Costume Components for Children 448
Summary 450
Visual Summary Table 451
Legacies of Edwardian and World War I Styles 452
Chapter Sixteen
The Twenties, Thirties, and World War II
1920–1947 454
Historical Background 456
Contemporary Comments 16.1 460
Contemporary Comments 16.2 462
Influences on Fashions 463
Table 16.1 Designers of the French Couture: 1920–1947 468
Art Movements and Their Influence on Fashion 472
Sources of Information about Costume 472
Costume: 1920–1947 473
Illustrated Table 16.1 Selected Undergarments for Women, Men, and Boys: 1920–1947 474
Global Connections 478
Illustrated Table 16.2 Selected Hairstyles and Hats for Women: 1920–1947 479
Illustrated Table 16.3 Selected Examples of Footwear for Women: 1920–1947 481
Illustrated Table 16.4 Accessories: 1920–1947 489
Costume Components for Men 490
Costume Components for Children 497
Illustrated Table 16.5 Children’s Clothing Styles: 1920–1938 498
Summary 500
Visual Summary Table 501
Legacies of Styles of the 1920s and 1930s 502
Chapter Seventeen
The New Look: Fashion Conformity Prevails 1947–1960 504
Historical Background 506
Influences on Fashion 510
Table 17.1 Influential Paris-Based Designers, 1947–1960 516
Table 17.2 Major American Fashion Designers of the 1950s 517
Costume for Women: 1947–1960 518
Contemporary Comments 17.1 519
Illustrated Table 17.1 Selected Undergarments for Women, Men, and Boys: 1947–1960 521
Illustrated Table 17.2 Typical Hats for Women: 1947–1960 527
Illustrated Table 17.3 Selected Examples of Popular Footwear: 1947–1960 528
Illustrated Table 17.4 Accessories: 1947–1960 529
Costume Components for Men 530
Global Connections 534
Costume Components for Children 535
Illustrated Table 17.5 Children’s Clothing Styles: 1947–1960 535
Summary 536
Visual Summary Table 537
Legacies of New Look Styles 538
Chapter Eighteen
The Sixties and Seventies: Style Tribes Emerge 1960–1980 540
Historical Background 542
The Impact of Social Change on Fashion 547
Global Connections 552
Other Influences in Fashion 552
Table 18.1 Media Influences on Fashion: 1960–1980 553
The Changing Fashion Industry 556
Contemporary Comments 18.1 559
Table 18.2 Influential Designers in Paris and Other Fashion Centers: 1960–1980 560
Costume: 1960–1980 562
Contemporary Comments 18.2 565
Illustrated Table 18.1 Selected Undergarments for Women and Men: 1960–1980 566
Illustrated Table 18.2 Typical Hats and Hairstyles for Women: 1960–1980 572
Illustrated Table 18.3 Selected Examples of Popular Footwear for Women and Men: 1960–1980 573
Illustrated Table 18.4 Accessories: 1960–1980 575
Costume Components for Men 579
Costume Components for Children 583
Illustrated Table 18.5 Children’s Clothing Styles: 1960–1980 585
Summary 586
Legacies of Styles of 1960–1980 586
Visual Summary Table 587
Chapter Nineteen
The Eighties and the Nineties: Fragmentation of Fashion 1980–1999 590
Historical Background 592
Changes in the Fashion Industry 599
Table 19.1 Style Tribes and Their Impact on Mainstream Fashion 601
Table 19.2 Prominent European and Asian Designers 607
Table 19.3 Prominent American Designers 610
Fashion Influences 612
Contemporary Comments 19.1 613
Global Connections 616
Table 19.4 Media Influences on Fashion: 1980–1999 618
Contemporary Comments 19.2 619
Contemporary Comments 19.3 623
Costume: The Eighties and the Nineties 623
Illustrated Table 19.1 Selected Undergarments for Women and Men: 1980–1999 627
Illustrated Table 19.2 Selected Examples of Popular Footwear for Women, Men, and
Children: 1980–1999 634
Illustrated Table 19.3 Accessories: 1980–1999 635
Costume Components for Children 640
Summary 643
Illustrated Table 19.4 Children’s Clothing Styles: 1980–1999 644
New Views of Fashion 646
Visual Summary Table 647
Chapter Twenty
The New Millennium 2000–2014 650
Historical Background 652
Table 20.1 Some Prominent Designers: 2000–2014 654
Changes in the Fashion Industry 661
The Origins of Major Fashion Trends of 2000–2014 662
Table 20.2 Media Influences on Fashion: 2000–2014 666
Costume Components: 2000–2014 668
Contemporary Comments 20.1 669
Global Connections 673
Illustrated Table 20.1 Popular Footwear: 2000–2014 677
Costume Components for Children 682
Summary 683
New Views of Fashion 683
Visual Summary Table 684
Bibliography 687
Index 689
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