Smart Textiles and Their Applications Edited by Vladan Koncar


Smart Textiles and Their Applications
Edited by Vladan Koncar

Smart Textiles and Their Applications

Table of Contents
The Textile Institute and Woodhead Publishing
List of contributors
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles

1. Introduction to smart textiles and their applications
1.1. Definitions of smart textiles
1.2. Main domains of applications
1.3. Smart textiles and their readiness for the market
1.4. Achievements
2. Smart textiles in health: An overview
2.1. Introduction
2.2. What can textile electrodes monitor?
2.3. How do textile-based electrodes and sensors work and what can they measure?
2.4. What textile-based actuators are (or can be) used for in health applications?
2.5. Conclusions
3. Smart shirt for obstacle avoidance for visually impaired persons
3.1. Introduction
3.2. E-textile architecture for obstacle avoidance
3.3. Smart shirt concept model
3.4. An algorithm for obstacle avoidance and data transfer in a smart shirt
3.5. Sensing performance of the smart shirt
3.6. Conclusions
3.7. Trends in future challenges
4. Light emitting textiles for a photodynamic therapy
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Fabric types
4.3. Future of light-emitting fabrics

5. Controlled release of active agents from microcapsules embedded in textile structures
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Controlled release of active agents
5.3. Microencapsulation of active agents
5.4. Embedding of microcapsules into textile structures
5.5. Controlled release of microencapsulated active agents from textile structure
5.6. Future trends
5.7. Conclusions
6. Medical back belt with neuromuscular electrical stimulation
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Medical background information
6.3. Medical back belt
6.4. Results and conclusions
7. Communication protocols for vital signs sensors used for the monitoring of athletes
7.1. Introduction
7.2. System overview and network characteristics
7.3. Wireless communications technologies and standards
7.4. Security and reliability issues
7.5. Conclusions and future perspectives
8. Shape memory compression system for management of chronic venous disorders
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Chronic venous disorders
8.3. Shape memory materials for compression
8.4. Smart compression system using shape memory fibers
8.5. Conclusions
9. Wearable body sensor network for health care applications
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Biomedical sensors for wearable body sensor network
9.3. Wearable body sensor networks and wireless data acquisition
9.4. Wireless biomedical computing and applications
9.5. Future trends
9.6. Conclusions

10. Bioinspired control of a multifingered robot hand with musculoskeletal system
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Five-fingered robot hand
10.3. Bioinspired control
10.4. Experiment
10.5. Conclusions and future research
11. Psychotextiles and their interaction with the human brain
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Psychology and art
11.3. Colour and pattern in human emotions
11.4. The human brain
11.5. Self-evaluation of human emotion
11.6. A study of changing patterns
11.7. Experimental methodology
11.8. Brain data acquisition and processing
11.9. Data analysis and results
11.10. Discussion and conclusions
12. Fiber-based hybrid structures as scaffolds and implants for regenerative medicine
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Biopolymers
12.3. Fibers from biopolymers
12.4. Definition of hybrid structures
12.5. Flock scaffolds as a single material system
12.6. Fiber-based additive manufacturing technology for open porous implants with complex geometries
12.7. Uniform hybrid scaffolds
12.8. Implants for complex defects affecting multiple types of tissues or different tissue structures
12.9. Electrospun implants for tubular grafts
12.10. Conclusions
13. Smart features in fibrous implantable medical devices
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Structural biocompatibility of fibrous implantable devices
13.3. Material biocompatibility of fibrous implantable medical devices
13.4. Current challenges and future prospects for smart textile implantable devices
14. Smart textiles for structural health monitoring of composite structures
14.1. Introduction
14.2. The piezoresistive behaviour of polymer composites based on conductive fillers
14.3. Fibrous sensor for compression and traction detection in laminated composites
14.4. Sensing layer for the detection of damage in laminated composites
14.5. Conclusions

15. Carbon fibre sensors embedded in glass fibre-based composites for windmill blades
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Functional principle of textile-based piezoresistive carbon filament yarn sensors for application in a wind turbine blade
15.3. Experimental details
15.4. Results and discussion
15.5. Conclusions
16. A complex shaped-reinforced thermoplastic composite part made of commingled yarns with an integrated sensor
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Complex shaped-reinforced thermoplastic composites
16.3. Sensors technology
16.4. Testing
16.5. Results and discussion
16.6. Conclusions
17. Fibrous sensors to help the monitoring of weaving process
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Observation of the kinematics of the weaving process
17.3. Sensor yarns to measure the mechanical stress during the weaving process
17.4. Dynamic measurements of the weaving process with sensor yarns
17.5. Conclusions
18. Flexible photovoltaic cells embedded into textile structures
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Textile with embedded photovoltaic cells
18.3. Performance
18.4. Conclusions
19. Developing thermophysical sensors with textile auxiliary wall
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Heat and mass transfers in textiles
19.3. Heat fluxmeters
19.4. Textile heat fluxmeter
19.5. Conclusions and future trends

20. Performance of different types of yarn electrodes in PEDOT: PSS charge storage devices
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Background of textile-based batteries and capacitors
20.3. Developed PEDOT:PSS capacitors
20.4. Device fabrication
20.5. The general charge–discharge procedure
20.6. Results of charge–discharge experiments
20.7. Devices with silver-coated PBO yarn electrodes at fixed voltage and different charging time
20.8. Devices with stainless steel yarn electrodes at fixed voltage and different charging times
20.9. Comparison of devices with silver-coated PBO yarn electrodes versus devices with pure stainless steel filament yarn electrodes
20.10. Experimental results with devices connected to load resistors
20.11. Proposed charge storage mechanism in the developed cells
20.12. Conclusions
21. Lightguide fibres–based textile for solar energy collection and propagation
21.1. Introduction
21.2. State of the art
21.3. Problems of the study
21.4. Experimental part
21.5. Results
21.6. Conclusions
22. Smart materials for personal protective equipment: Tendencies and recent developments
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Key trends in product development
22.3. Developments of PPE products and technologies
22.4. Consequences on PPE testing and specifications
22.5. Conclusions
23. Wearable technologies for personal protective equipment: Embedded textile monitoring sensors, power and data transmission, end-life indicators
23.1. Introduction
23.2. Power and data transmission
23.3. Embedded textile monitoring sensors
23.4. End-life indicators
23.5. Conclusions and future trends
24. Electrochromic textile displays for personal communication
24.1. Introduction
24.2. Emissive textile devices
24.3. Reflective devices
24.4. Applications and the need for communicative textiles
24.5. Conclusions and future work

25. Textile electronic circuits based on organic fibrous transistors
25.1. Introduction
25.2. Materials
25.3. Fibrous transistors
25.4. Textile electronic circuits
25.5. Conclusions and perspectives
26. Latest developments in the field of textile antennas
26.1. Introduction to textile antennas
26.2. Textile antenna fundamentals
26.3. Challenges and adverse effects related to textile antennas
26.4. Overview of the state of the art on textile antennas
26.5. Conclusions and future outlook
27. The design of smart garments for motion capture and activity classification
27.1. Introduction
27.2. Physical design
27.3. Network and hardware/software architecture
27.4. Applications
27.5. Lessons learned and future work
28. Electroconductive textiles and textile-based electromechanical sensors—integration in as an approach for smart textiles
28.1. Introduction
28.2. Fundamental sensorics
28.3. Electroconductive textile structures
28.4. Textile-based electromechanical sensors
28.5. Future perspectives

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