Chemical Testing of Textiles Edited by Qinguo Fan

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Chemical Testing of Textiles
Edited by Qinguo Fan
Chemical Testing of Textiles

Contributor contact details ix
Preface xi
1 Fiber and yarn identification 1
S. C. UGBOLUE, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Natural fibers 1
1.3 Regenerated fibers 5
1.4 Fiber identification 5
1.5 Density measurement 13
1.6 Use of infrared spectroscopy 14
1.7 Other methods of surface analysis 14
1.8 References 15
2 Chemical analysis of feather and down textile materials 17
International Down and Feather Laboratory, USA
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Chemical analysis of feathers and down 21
2.3 Chemical analysis of extracts 26
2.4 Visual analytical methods 30
2.5 Finished product quality 40
2.6 References 44
3 Chemical analysis of leather 47
Y. SHAO, Centre for Textile Technologies (Group CTT), Canada
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2 Identification of leather 48
3.3 Analysis of tanning materials 52
3.4 Tests for leather properties 58
3.5 Tests of leather performance 65
3.6 Tests of leather stability (ageing) 69
3.7 References 71
4 Analysis of common chemicals used in textile wet processes 74
Q. FAN, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA
4. 1 Introduction 74
4.2 Acids, bases and salts 77
4.3 Surfactants 86
4.4 Oxidising agents and reducing agents 88
4.5 Miscellaneous chemicals 91
4.6 References 94
5 Analysis of chemicals used in fibre finishing 96
Q. FAN, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA
5.1 Introduction 96
5.2 Sizing agents 96
5.3 Lubricants and cohesive agents 100
5.4 Other additives 103
5.5 References 105
6 Chemical analysis of fabric finishes and performance-related tests 107
P. J. HAUSER, North Carolina State University, USA
6.1 Introduction 107
6.2 Analysis of fabric finishes 107
6.3 Finish performance tests 113
6.4 References 122
7 Chemical analysis of textile coatings and membranes 126
R. A. SCOTT, Colchester, UK
7.1 Introduction 126
7.2 Chemical types used in coatings and membranes 126
7.3 Natural and synthetic rubbers 130
7.4 Preparation of coatings for analysis 133
7.5 Elemental Analysis 134
7.6 The Burchfield colour reaction test for elastomers 137
7.7 Infrared spectroscopy of coatings 138
7.8 British and international standard chemical test methods 140
7.9 Analysis of components, additives and compounding ingredients 141
7.10 Conclusions 143
7.11 References 144
8 Chemical analysis of damage to textiles 145
W. SCHINDLER and E. FINNIMORE, University of
Applied Sciences Hof, Germany
8.1 Introduction 145
8.2 Practical importance of textile damage assessment and analysis of causes of damage 146
8.3 Fundamentals of textile damage analysis 147
8.4 Methods of textile damage analysis 150
8.5 Damage analysis according to the type of fibre 174
8.6 Special types of damage and their analysis 219
8.7 Special applications and particularities of textile damage analysis 225
8.8 Concluding remarks 229
8.9 Acknowledgments 229
8.10 References 230
9 Water and wastewater analysis 242
C. BRENT SMITH and H. S. FREEMAN, North Carolina
State University, USA
9.1 Introduction 242
9.2 Samples and sampling 248
9.3 Specific tests 250
9.4 Laboratory practices 267
9.5 Issues and improvements for the future 268
9.6 References 268
10 Chemical analysis of colorants 270
K. N. TAPLEY, University of Leeds, UK and Q. FAN,
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, USA
10.1 Introduction 270
10.2 Colorants 271
10.3 General issues in analysis and the steps involved in analysis 282
10.4 Molecular spectroscopy/spectrometry 287
10.5 Atomic spectroscopy (and elemental analysis) 300
10.6 Separation science 302
10.7 Summary of instrumental analysis 307
10.8 Colorant analysis without using instruments 308
10.9 References 312
Index 316

It has long been my desire to contribute to a textbook that is solely devoted to the chemical analysis of textiles. Thus, when Woodhead Publishing contacted me about editing this book, I enthusiastically accepted the offer. Now, with the hard work of a team of contributors who are professors, material researchers and textile analysts from Canada, Britain, Germany and the United States of America, and the great assistance offered by the staff at Woodhead Publishing, this book has become a reality.

The book was initially intended to be read by students in the textile chemistry field who are supposed to have taken organic chemistry. As realized later, this book may also serve as a guide for textile professionals working in laboratories for chemicals testing. Some of these textile professionals may or may not be trained in this specialized area of chemistry, or, if they were trained, they may have been working outside the chemistry specialism for a long time. Therefore, the heavy chemistry content has been reduced and more fundamental chemical concepts and rudimentary procedures have been introduced. It has not been easy to balance the theoretical and practical parts of the content. As it is, this book seems more inclined to the practical with many basic aspects pertaining to the chemical analysis of textiles. Readers who have an avid chemistry mindset or who want to know all the detailed procedures, experimental set-up and data analysis could find the references at the end of every chapter more useful with regard to each individual test introduced in the chapter. In most cases, the chemical analysis is done with a test method regulated and updated by a professional organization, like the American Association of Textile Chemist and Colorists (AATCC), the Society of Dyers and Colourists (SDC), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Some test methods may be adopted by a few organizations.

It should, however, be noted that a particular chemical property of materials can be tested in different ways. The test method introduced in this book may not necessarily be the most suitable one for the job. Sometimes, a new test method may have to be developed or established for new materials coming to the market. For example, nanotechnology can now be employed to process textiles. The claimed advantages could be novel properties, combined properties by a simple operation or smart properties (intelligent responsive properties). The challenge is how to evaluate the performances and properties associated with nanotechnology. At present, no easily accessible means is available to determine simply whether or not the ‘nano’ textiles are processed using nanotechnology or if they possess nanomaterials. Of course, the traditional properties of ‘nano’ textiles can still be tested by the currently available methods, but we want to know something about the ‘nano’ properties in this case. Therefore, test methods must, of necessity, be updated and developed to reflect the trend of new materials. Users of the test methods should be aware of the latest developments and keep using appropriate and updated test methods.

Qinguo Fan

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