Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology by Carl A. Lawrence

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Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology
by Carl A. Lawrence
Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology

Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Fundamentals of Yarns and Yarn Production
1.1 Early History and Developments
1.2 Yarn Classification and Structure
1.2.1 Classification of Yarns
1.2.2 The Importance of Yarns in Fabrics
1.2.3 A Simple Analysis of Yarn Structure
1.2.3.1 The Simple Helix Model
1.3 Yarn Count Systems
1.3.1 Dimensions of a Yarn
1.4 Twist and Twist Factor
1.4.1 Direction and Angle of Twist
1.4.2 Twist Insertion, Real Twist, Twist Level, and False Twist
1.4.2.1 Insertion of Real Twist
1.4.2.2 Twist Level
1.4.2.3 Insertion of False Twist
1.4.3 Twist Multiplier/Twist Factor
1.4.4 Twist Contraction/Retraction
1.5 Fiber Parallelism
1.6 Principles of Yarn Production
1.7 Raw Materials
1.7.1 The Global Fiber Market
1.7.2 The Important Fiber Characteristics and Properties for Yarn Production
1.7.2.1 Cotton Fibers
1.7.2.1.1 Fiber Length (UHM)
1.7.2.1.2 Length Uniformity Index (LUI)
1.7.2.1.3 Fiber Strength
1.7.2.1.4 Micronaire
1.7.2.1.5 Color
1.7.2.1.6 Preparation
1.7.2.1.7 Leaf and Extraneous Matter (Trash)
1.7.2.1.8 Stickiness
1.7.2.1.9 Nep Content
1.7.2.1.10 Short Fiber Content (SFC)
1.7.2.2 Wool Fibers
1.7.2.2.1 Fineness
1.7.2.2.2 Fiber Length Measurements
1.7.2.2.3 Tensile Properties
1.7.2.2.4 Color
1.7.2.2.5 Vegetable Content, Grease, and Yield
1.7.2.2.6 Crimp, Bulk, Lustre, Resilience
1.7.2.2.7 Medullation
1.7.2.3 Speciality Hair Fibers
1.7.2.3.1 Mohair
1.7.2.3.2 Types of Fleeces
1.7.2.3.3 Physical Properties
1.7.2.3.4 Cashmere
1.7.2.3.5 Physical Properties
1.7.2.4 Silk Fibers
1.7.2.4.1 Waste Silk
1.7.2.5 Manufactured Fibers [Man-Made Fibers (MMFs)]
1.7.2.5.1 Viscose Rayon and Lyocell
1.7.2.5.2 Polyamide (Nylon)
1.7.2.5.3 Polyester
1.7.2.5.4 Acrylic
1.7.2.5.5 Polypropylene
References
Appendix 1A Derivation of Equation for False-Twist Insertion
1A.1 Twist Equation for Zone AX
1A.2 Twist Equation for Zone XB
Appendix 1B Fiber Length Parameters
1B.1 Staple Length
1B.2 Fiber Length Distributions
1B.3 CFD by Suter-Webb
Chapter 2
Materials Preparation Stage I: Opening, Cleaning, and Scouring
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Stage I: Opening and Cleaning
2.2.1 Mechanical Opening and Cleaning
2.2.2 Striking from a Spike
2.2.3 Beater and Feed Roller
2.2.4 Use of Air Currents
2.2.5 Estimation of the Effectiveness of Opening and Cleaning Systems
2.2.5.1 Intensity of Opening
2.2.5.2 Openness Value
2.2.5.3 Cleaning Efficiency
2.2.6 Wool Scouring
2.2.7 Wool Carbonizing
2.2.8 Tuft Blending
2.2.8.1 Basic Principles of Tuft Blending
2.2.8.2 Tuft Blending Systems
2.2.9 Opening, Cleaning, and Blending Sequence
References
Appendix 2A
Lubricants
Reference
Chapter 3
Materials Preparation Stage II: Fundamentals of the Carding Process
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Revolving Flat Card
3.2.1 The Chute Feed System
3.2.2 The Taker-in Zone
3.2.3 Cylinder Carding Zone
3.2.4 Cylinder-Doffer Stripping Zone
3.2.5 Sliver Formation
3.2.6 Continuity of Fiber Mass Flow
3.2.7 Drafts Equations
3.2.8 Production Equation
3.2.9 The Tandem Card
3.3 Worsted and Woolen Cards
3.3.1 Hopper Feed
3.3.2 Taker-in and Breast Section
3.3.3 Intermediate Feed Section of the Woolen Card
3.3.3.1 Carding Section
3.3.4 Burr Beater Cleaners and Crush Rollers
3.3.5 Sliver and Slubbing Formation
3.3.5.1 Tape Condenser
3.3.5.2 Ring-Doffer Condenser
3.3.6 Production Equations
3.4 Sliver Quality
3.4.1 Cleaning Efficiency
3.4.1.1 Short-Staple Carding
3.4.1.2 Worsted and Woolen Carding
3.4.2 Nep Formation and Removal
3.4.2.1 Nep Formation
3.4.2.2 The Effect of Fiber Properties
3.4.2.3 Effect of Machine Parameters
3.4.2.4 Short Fiber Content
3.4.3 Sliver and Slubbing Regularity
3.5 Autoleveling
3.6 Backwashing
References
Recommended Readings on the Measurement of Yarn Quality Parameters
Appendix 3A Card Clothing
3A.1 Metallic Wires: Saw-Tooth Wire Clothing
3A.1.1 Tooth Depth
3A.1.2 Tooth Angles
3A.1.3 Point Density
3A.1.4
Tooth Point Dimension
3A.2
Front and Rear Fixed Flats
3A.3
Wear of Card Clothing
Appendix 3B
Condenser Tapes and Rub Aprons
3B.1
Tape Threadings
3B.1.1
The Figure 8 Threading
3B.1.2
Series Threading
3B.1.3
Endless Threading
3B.2 Rubbing Aprons
Appendix 3C Minimum Irregularity and Index of Irregularity
Chapter 4 Carding Theory
4.1 Opening of Fiber Mass
4.1.1 Taker-in Action
4.1.2 Feed-Roller, Feed-Plate Systems
4.1.2.1 Feed-Roller Systems
4.2 Carding Actions
4.2.1 Cylinder-Flat Action
4.2.2 Swift-Worker-Stripper Action
4.3 Web Formation and Fiber Configuration
4.3.1 Cylinder-Doffer Action
4.3.1.1 Fiber Configuration and Mechanism of Fiber
Transfer
4.3.1.2 Effect of Machine Variables on Fiber Configuration
4.3.1.3 Recycling Layer and Transfer Coefficient
4.3.1.4 Factors that Determine the Transfer Coefficient, K
4.3.1.5 The Importance of the Recycling Layer
4.3.2 Blending-Leveling Action
4.3.2.1 Evening Actions of a Card
4.3.2.1.1 Step Change in Feed
4.3.2.1.2 General or Random Irregularities
4.3.2.1.3 Periodic Irregularities
4.4 Fiber Breakage
4.4.1 Mechanism of Fiber Breakage
4.4.2 State of Fiber Mass and Fiber Characteristics
4.4.3 Effect Residual Grease and Added Lubrication
4.4.4 Effect of Machine Parameters
4.4.4.1 Tooth Geometry
4.4.4.2 Roller Surface Speed/Setting/Production Rate
4.4.4.2.1 The Taker-in Zone
4.4.4.2.2 Effect of Cylinder-Flats and Swift-Worker
Interaction
References
Appendix 4A
Appendix 4B The Opening of a Fibrous Mass
4B.1 Removal of Fibers when Both Ends are Embedded in the Fiber Mass
4B.2 Behavior of a Single Fiber Struck by High-Speed Pins
4B.3 Micro-Damage of Fibers Caused by the Opening Process
References
Chapter 5 Materials Preparation Stage III
5.1 Drawing
5.1.1 Principles of Doubling
5.1.2 Principles of Roller Drafting
5.1.2.1 Ideal Drafting
5.1.2.2 Actual Drafting
5.1.2.2.1 Effect of Input Material Characteristics
5.1.2.2.2 Drafting Wave
5.1.2.2.3 Observations of Floating Fiber Motion
5.1.2.2.4 Drafting Force
5.1.2.3 Factors Influencing Drafting Wave Irregularity
5.1.2.3.1 Size of Draft
5.1.2.3.2 Input Count
5.1.2.3.3 Doubling
5.1.2.3.4 Fiber Straightness, Parallelism, Fineness, and Length
5.1.2.3.5 Roller Settings
5.1.3 Effect of Machine Defects
5.1.3.1 Roller Eccentricity
5.1.3.2 Roller Slip
5.1.4 The Drawing Operations
5.1.4.1 The Drawframe
5.1.4.2 The Gill Box
5.1.5 Production Equation
5.2 Combing
5.2.1 The Principles of Rectilinear Combing
5.2.1.1 Nasmith Comb
5.2.1.1.1 The Cylinder Comb
5.2.1.1.2 The Feed Roller/Top and Bottom Nipper Plates/Top Comb
5.2.1.1.3 Detaching Rollers and Delivery Rollers
5.2.1.1.4 The Combing Cycle
5.2.1.2 French Comb
5.2.2 Production Equation
5.2.3 Degrees of Combing
5.2.4 Factors Affecting Noil Extraction
5.2.4.1 Comber Settings
5.2.4.2 Preparation of Input Sliver
5.3 Conversion of Tow to Sliver
5.3.1 Cutting Converters
5.3.2 Stretch-Breaking Converters
5.3.3 Production Equation
5.4 Roving Production
5.4.1 The Speed-Frame (Twisted Rovings)
5.4.1.1 Production Equation
5.4.2 Rub Rovers (Twistless Rovings)
5.4.2.1 Production Equation
5.5 Environmental Processing Conditions
References
Chapter 6 Yarn Formation Structure and Properties
6.1 Spinning Systems
6.1.1 Ring and Traveler Spinning Systems
6.1.1.1 Conventional Ring Spinning
6.1.1.2 Spinning Tensions
6.1.1.3 Twist Insertion and Bobbin Winding
6.1.1.3.1 Spinning End Breaks
6.1.1.4 Compact Spinning and Solo Spinning
6.1.1.5 Spun-Plied Spinning
6.1.1.6 Key Points
6.1.1.6.1 Advantages
6.1.1.6.2 Disadvantages
6.1.2 Open-End Spinning Systems
6.1.2.1 OE Rotor Spinning
6.1.2.1.1 Twist Insertion
6.1.2.1.2 End Breaks during Spinning
6.1.2.2 OE Friction Spinning
6.1.3 Self-Twist Spinning System
6.1.4 Wrap Spinning Systems
6.1.4.1 Surface Fiber Wrapping
6.1.4.1.1 Dref-3 Friction Spinning
6.1.4.1.2 Air-Jet Spinning
6.1.4.1.3 Single- and Twin-Jet Systems: Murata
Vortex, Murata Twin Spinner, Suessen
Plyfil
6.1.4.2 Filament Wrapping
6.1.5 Twistless Spinning Systems
6.1.5.1 Continuous Felting: Periloc Process
6.1.5.2 Adhesive Bonding: Bobtex Process
6.1.6 Core Spinning
6.1.7 Doubling Principles
6.1.7.1 Down Twisting
6.1.7.2 Two-for-One Twisting
6.1.8 Economic Considerations
6.2 Yarn Structure and Properties
6.2.1 Yarn Structure
6.2.1.1 Surface Characteristics and Geometry
6.2.1.2 Fiber Migration and Helix Model of Yarn Structures
6.2.2 Formation of Spun Yarn Structures
6.2.2.1 Conventional Ring-Spun Yarns
6.2.2.1.1 Mechanism of Fiber Migration
6.2.2.2 Compact Ring-Spun Yarns
6.2.2.3 Formation of Rotor Yarn Structure
6.2.2.3.1 Cyclic Aggregation
6.2.2.3.2 Theory of Spun-in Fibers in Yarns
6.2.2.4 Formation of Friction-Spun Yarn Structures
6.2.2.5 Formation of Wrap-Spun Yarn Structures
6.2.2.5.1 Air-Jet Spun Yarns
6.2.2.5.2 Hollow-Spindle Wrap-Spun Yarns
6.2.3 Structure Property Relation of Yarns
6.2.3.1 Compression
6.2.3.2 Flexural Rigidity
6.2.3.3 Tensile Properties
6.2.3.3.1 Effect of Twist
6.2.3.3.2 Effect of Fiber Properties and Material
Preparation
6.2.3.3.3 Fiber Blends
6.2.3.3.4 Effect of Spinning Machine Variables
6.2.3.4 Irregularity Parameters
6.2.3.4.1 Effect of Fiber Properties and Material
Preparation
6.2.3.4.2 Effect of Spinning Machine Variables
6.2.3.4.3 Yarn Blends
6.2.3.4.4 The Ideal Blend
6.2.3.5 Hairiness Profile
6.2.3.6 Moisture Transport
6.2.3.7 Friction
6.3 Quality Criteria
6.3.1 Post-Process Performance Criteria
6.3.1.1 Knitting
6.3.1.2 Weaving
6.3.1.3 Fabric Quality
References
Chapter 7 The Principles of Package Winding
7.1 Basic Principles
7.1.1 Winding Parameters
7.2 Types of Winding Machines
7.2.1 Drum-Winding Machines
7.2.1.1 Wing Cam
7.2.1.2 Grooved Drum
7.2.1.3 Patterning/Ribboning
7.2.1.4 Sloughing-Off
7.2.1.5 Anti-patterning Devices
7.2.1.5.1 Variation of Traverse Frequency, Nt
7.2.1.5.2 Variation of Drum Speed, Nd
7.2.1.5.3 Lifting of Bobbin to Reduce Nb
7.2.1.5.4 Rock-and-Roll Method
7.2.2 Precision Winding Machines
7.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Two Methods of
Winding
7.2.4 Combinational Methods for Pattern-Free Winding
7.2.4.1 Stepped Precision Winding (Digicone)
7.2.4.2 Ribbon Free Random Winding
7.3 Random-Wound Cones
7.3.1 Package Surface Speed
7.3.2 Abrasion at the Nose of Cones
7.3.3 Traverse Motions
7.4 Precision Open-Wound and Close-Wound Packages
7.4.1 Theory of Close-Wound Packages
7.4.2 Patterning or Ribboning
7.4.3 Hard Edges
7.4.4 Cobwebbing (Webbing or Stitching or Dropped Ends)
7.4.5 Twist Displacement
7.5 Yarn Tensioning and Tension Control
7.5.1 Characteristics of Yarn Tensioning Devices
7.5.1.1 The Dynamic Behavior of Yarns
7.5.1.2 The Capstan Effect
7.5.1.3 Multiplicative and Additive Effects
7.5.1.4 Combination Tensioning Devices
7.6 Yarn Clearing
7.7 Knotting and Splicing
7.7.1 Knotting
7.7.2 Splicing
7.8 Yarn Waxing
References
Chapter 8 Yarn Tensions and Balloon Geometry in Ring Spinning and
Winding
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Circularly Polarized Standing Waves
8.2 Yarn Tensions in Ring Spinning
8.2.1 Yarn Formation Zone
8.2.2 Winding Zone
8.2.2.1 Yarn Tensions in the Absence of Air Drag
8.2.3 Balloon Zone
8.2.3.1 Balloon Tension in the Absence of Air Drag
8.2.3.2 Spinning Tension in the Absence of Air Drag
8.2.4 The Effect of Air Drag on Yarn Tensions
8.3 Balloon Profiles in Ring Spinning
8.3.1 Balloon Profiles in the Absence of Air Drag
8.3.2 The Balloon Profile in the Presence of Air Drag
8.3.3 Determination of Ring Spinning Balloon Profiles Based on
Sinusoidal Waveforms
8.3.4 Effect of Balloon Control Rings
8.4 Tensions and Balloon Profiles in the Winding Process
8.4.1 Yarn Tensions during Unwinding from a Ring-Spinning Package
8.4.2 Unwinding Balloon Profiles
References
Chapter 9 Fancy Yarn Production
9.1 Classification of Fancy Yarns
9.2 Basic Principles
9.3 Production Methods
9.3.1 Plying Techniques for the Production of Fancy Yarns
9.3.1.1 The Profile Twisting Stage
9.3.1.2 The Binding Stage
9.3.1.3 The Plied Chenille Profile
9.3.2 Spinning Techniques for the Production of Fancy Yarns
9.4 Design and Construction of the Basic Profiles
9.4.1 Spiral
9.4.2 Gimp
9.4.3 Loop
9.4.4 Snarl
9.4.5 Knop
9.4.6 Cover
9.4.7 Slub
9.4.8 Chenille
9.4.9 Combination of Profiles
9.5 Analysis of Fancy Yarns
References

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