Handbook of Smart Textiles Edited by Xiaoming Tao

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Handbook of Smart Textiles
Edited by Xiaoming Tao
Handbook of Smart Textiles

Contents
Part I Smart Fibers and Fibrous Assembly Structures . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Jinlian Hu and Xiaoming Tao
1 Electric Functions of Textile Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Toshihiro Hirai and Hong Xia
2 Conducting Polymer Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Javad Foroughi, Geoffrey M. Spinks, and Gordon G. Wallace
3 Conductive Polymer Fibers for Sensor Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Mutsumi Kimura
4 Optical Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Anne Schwarz-Pfeiffer, Viktorija Mecnika, Markus Beckers,
Thomas Gries, and Stefan Jockenhoevel
5 Polymer Optical Fiber for Smart Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Wei Zeng
6 Fibers with the Tunable Structure Colors Based on the
Ordered and Amorphous Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Wei Yuan, Chaojie Wu, Ning Zhou, and Ke-Qin Zhang
7 Photochromic Fibers and Fabrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Marzieh Parhizkar, Yan Zhao, and Tong Lin
8 Shape Memory Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Jinlian Hu and Jing Lu
9 Silk Fibers as Smart Materials Toward Medical Textiles . . . . . . . 209
Yasushi Tamada and Katsura Kojima
10 Phase Change Fibers and Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Qinghao Meng, Guoqiang Li, and Jinlian Hu
Part II Interactive Textile Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Xiaoming Tao
11 Fiber-Based Wearable Electronic Circuits and Systems . . . . . . . . 255
Shu Lin
12 Flexible Fabric Strain Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Weijing Yi
13 Soft Tactile Sensors for Human-Machine Interaction . . . . . . . . . . 317
Fei Wang
14 Textile Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Hatice A. K. Toprakci and Tushar K. Ghosh
15 Flexible Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Wei Chen and Zicai Zhu
16 Development of Nanogenerators in Wearable Electronics . . . . . . 411
Chen Song, Xiaoming Tao, and Songming Shang
17 Textile Antenna Systems: Design, Fabrication, and
Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Hendrik Rogier
18 Energy-Harvesting Fabric Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Alessandra Costanzo and Diego Masotti
19 Mechanisms for Fiber-based Nanogenerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Wei Zeng
20 Functional Nanofibers for Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Yao Lu, Chen Chen, and Xiangwu Zhang
21 Fabric Substrates and Interconnectors for Three-Dimensional
Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
Qiao Li and Xiaoming Tao
22 Photonic Fabric Devices for Phototherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Shen Jing
23 Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Grating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
Zhang Zhifeng
Part III Product Integration and Evaluation Technologies . . . . . . 615
Vladan Koncar and Xiaoming Tao
24 Applications of Electrospun Nanofibers for
Electronic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
Jian Fang, Hao Shao, Haitao Niu, and Tong Lin
25 Printed Textile-Based Electronic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
R. Torah, Y. Wei, Y. Li, K. Yang, S. Beeby, and J. Tudor
26 Thermal Regulation of Electrically Conducting Fabrics . . . . . . . . 689
Jiahui Tong and Li Li
27 Relationship Between Electromechanical Properties and
Fabric Structures Made from Intrinsically
Conductive Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719
Zhang Hui
28 Fabrication of Organic Materials for Electronic Textiles . . . . . . . 739
Tae Hwan Lim, Seong Hun Kim, and Kyung Wha Oh
29 Evaluation Methods and Instruments of Dry
Biopotential Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775
Liu Hao and Xiaoming Tao
30 Applications of Terahertz Wave Technology in
Smart Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809
Dongxiao Yang
31 Standards for Smart Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843
Carla Hertleer and Lieva Van Langenhove
Part IV Applications of Smart Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857
Vladan Koncar, Jinlian Hu, and Xiaoming Tao
32 Color-Changing Textiles and Electrochromism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859
Fern M. Kelly and Ce´dric Cochrane
33 Smart Nanofibrous Membranes with Controllable Porous
Structure and Surface Wettability for High Efficient Separation
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891
Yang Si, Xiaomin Tang, Jianyong Yu, and Bin Ding
34 Thermo-responsive Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919
Jiping Wang, Qi Zhong, Jindan Wu, and Tao Chen
35 Novel Synthesis Pathways for PNIPAAm-Based Hydrogels and
Their Application in Thermosensitive Textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 953
Petar Jovancic, S. Petrusic, and R. Molina
36 Textile-Based Body Sensor Networks and Biomedical Computing
for Healthcare Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985
Yong Kim and Honggang Wang
37 Photonic Fabrics for Fashion and Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005
Jeanne Tan
38 Smart Textiles: Past, Present, and Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
Lieva Van Langenhove
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059

Preface
“Smart Textiles” is an emerging transformative research area which deals with the creation and studies of new generations of fiber assemblies and apparel systems that can sense, react with, and adapt to external conditions or stimuli in a manual or programmed manner. The rapid development of nano-scaled science and technologies as well as miniaturization of devices make it possible to impart novel functions like electronic and photonic functions on the surface of or inside fibers and their assemblies. Fiber-based electronic and photonic devices and systems have outstanding flexibility and wearing comfort, superior fatigue resistance in long-term repeated large deformation, and excellent ubiquitousness, perfectly suited for wearable applications. Their fabrication normally involves low-cost and environmentfriendly processes by using conventional facilities at low temperature, often in ambient conditions. Such man-made fiber-based devices and systems hoist many new scientific and technological challenges that have never been encountered before.

It has been almost 15 years since the first book on this topic, Smart Fibers, Fabrics and Clothing, was published in 2001, when the field of smart textiles and clothing was only at its beginning. Then, I was encouraged to look freely into the unknown future, with the only guidance then being the scientific principles, based upon which to dream about things possible. Now looking back, during this period of time, many exciting developments have occurred as wished.

In 2001, only a handful number of research groups around the world were working on this topic. Now almost all major universities have research activities and publications. The topic of smart textiles has attracted many researchers of other fields to make contributions, at the same time helping traditional textile science and technology in its transition to work at multidisciplinary research frontiers. Having a synergic effect with the rapid developments of related areas, e.g., nanoscience and technology, smart materials and structures, microelectronics, Internet, and wireless communication, smart textiles has become a fertile field of research leading to many technological breakthroughs and excitements.

As a result, Handbook of Smart Textile has expanded to four volumes as compared to the single-volume book of 2001. They cover the following topics: The first section, “Smart Fibers and Fibrous Assembly Structures,” deals with multiscaled design and material synthesis of a range of metallic, inorganic, organic, polymeric, and hybrid smart materials for imparting single- or multifunctional intelligence to fibers and fibrous assemblies and their structures, performance, and characterization techniques. The second section, “Interactive Textile Devices,” describes structures, functions, mechanisms, and characterization technologies for sensing, communicating, memorizing, actuating, and energy harvesting by single-fiber or textile-based interactive devices and multiscale computational engineering techniques for designing and engineering intelligent fibrous products to achieve specific or multifunctions.

“Product Integration and Evaluation Technology” gives concise account to the principles, processes, equipment, and operation of a range of technologies to fabricate and evaluate the intelligent multifunctional textiles and apparel products. The last section, “Applications of Smart Textiles,” provides a globe view of the development and industrial applications with case studies, system design, product standards, analysis of the supply chain, challenges, and opportunities. I wish readers to find the Handbook informative and useful in their endeavors.


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