Textile Chemicals: Environmental Data and Facts by K. Lacasse and W. Baumann


Textile Chemicals: Environmental Data and Facts
By K. Lacasse and W. Baumann

Textile Chemicals


Index of figures and tables
General information
Legal regulations
Air and noise
EU 1mmission protection
Relevant laws in Germany
Water / waste water
EU protection of water
Relevant laws in Germany
EU legislation on waste
Relevant laws in Germany
EU legislation on chemicals
Relevant laws in Germany
Other ecological regulations
Fire safety standards
Azo colourants
Waste water relevance classification of auxiliaries according to TEGEWA
Classification of auxiliaries according to the SCORE system
The textile chain (from raw materials to finished goods)
The nature of textile fibres
Textile processing
Wet-processing in textile finishing
Class of main chemicals used in the TFI
Pretreatment techniques
Mechanical treatment techniques
Wet- and thermo treatment techniques
Pretreatment of cotton, linen, flax and jute
Desizing of woven fabric
Scouring/alkaline extraction/kiering
One-step desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton fabric
Mercerising/caustic soda treatment
Optical brightening
Cationisation (surface modification)
Pretreatment of wool
Raw wool scouring
Crabbing I thermo-fixing I sanforizing
FUlling I felting
Anti-felting treatments for wool (easy-care finishing)
Bleaching I optical brightening of wool
Pretreatment of silk
Degumming I boiling-off
Fixation of serecin on silk
Weighting of silk
Plasma treatment of degummed silk
Bleaching of silk I optical brightening
Pretreatment of man-made fibres
Pretreatment of half-synthetic fibres (regenerative cellulose, cellulose ester)
Pretreatment of synthetics
Pretreatment agents and auxiliaries
Bleaching agents and auxiliaries
Other pretreatment agents
General principles of dyeing
Dyeing techniques
Dyeing of cellulose fibres
Dyeing of wool
Dyeing of silk
Dyeing of polyamide fibres (nylon)
Dyeing of polyester fibres
Dyeing of cellulose acetate (AC) and cellulose triacetate (CT)
Dyeing of acrylic fibres
Dyeing of other synthetic fibres
Dyeing of Fibre blends
General principles of printing
Printing techniques
Chemicals used for machine preparation and maintenance
Primary chemicals in printing pastes
Printing on cellulose
Printing on synthetic fibres
Printing on protein fibres (wool and silk)
Acid dyes
Basic (cationic) dyes
Direct (substantive) dyes
Disperse dyes
Metal-complex dyes
Mordant dyes (chrome dyes)
Naphtol dyes (azoic dyes developed on the fibre)
Reactive dyes
Sulphur dyes
Vat dyes
Natural dyes
Solvent and ink-jet dyes
Colouring auxiliaries
Dyestuffs formulations
Other colouring auxiliaries
Finishing techniques
Mechanical/physical treatments
Chemical treatments
Coating and laminating
General finishing: refinement of look and feel
Optical brightening
Special breakthrough effects such as ajoure, devore, crepe, etc.
Lustring and metallic effects
SCUlptured effects such as seersucker, crepe, c1oque, etc.
Functional conditioning (ennoblement)
Waterproof handle and filling refinement
Swelling resistance finishing
Shrink resistance finishing
Easy-care finishing: non-creasing and permanent press conditioning
Easy care finishing of wool: anti-felting and shrink-resistance
Finishing using repellents
Non-slip, ladder-proof and anti-snag finishes
Finishing with flame retardants
Anti-electrostatic finishes
Antipilling finishing
Stabilizing against UV radiation and light
6.4.12 Finishing with biocides 447
6.4.13 Chemicals in coating and laminating 457
6.5 Other finishing chemicals 461
6.5.1 Antifoams 461
6.5.2 Fillers 462
6.5.3 Surfactants 462
6.5.4 Polymers 463
6.5.5 Stain blockers / soil repellents / soil release agents 464
6.5.6 Biocides 464
6.5.7 Agents and additives to promote bonding of fibres and threads 467
6.6 Intelligent textiles 468
6.6.1 Finishing with microcapsules 468
6.6.2 Other concepts for intelligent / smart textiles 482
7 Environmental considerations for textile processes and chemicals 484
7.1 Textile Production 484
7.1.1 Techniques for exhaust air, waste water and solid waste treatments 485
7.1.2 Pretreatment 498
7.1.3 Dyeing 524
7.1.4 Printing 574
7.1.5 Finishing 591
7.2 Textile use 608
7.2.1 Toxicology 608
7.2.2 Labels 623
7.3 Disposal of textiles 646
8 Glossary on textile finishing 648
Appendix 1 References 665
Appendix 2 Branch Specific Data on Chemical Substances 711
Appendix 3 Alphabetical List of Textile Chemicals 1069
Appendix 4 References Chemical Substances 1109
Appendix 5 Subject Index 1175

Index of figures and tables
Figure 1-1: Jobs in textiles and clothing in the different EU countries il 1999 2
Figure 2-1: TEGEWA classification scheme 65
Figure 3-1: Classification of fibres – Natural fibres 70
Figure 3-2: Classification of fibres – Man-made fibres 71
Figure 3-3: Typical textile processing flow-chart 75
Figure 3-4: Schematic survey of textile finishing processes 77
Figure 3-5: Typical process sequence for finishing of knitted fabric mainly consisting
of cotton 78
Figure 3-6: Typical process sequence for finishing of knitted fabric mainly consisting of
man-made fibres 79
Figure 3-7: Typical process sequence for finishing of woven fabric mainly consisting
of cotton 79
Figure 3-8: Typical process sequence for finishing of woven fabric mainly consisting of
wool 80
Figure 4-1: Survey on textile pretreatments 84
Figure 4-2: Overview of the fibre specific pretreatment processes 87
Figure 5-1: Survey of textile colouring treatments 157
Figure 5-2: Systematic of colouring agents 158
Figure 5-3: Principle of (discontinuous) batch dyeing 161
Figure 5-4: Principle of (continuous) foulard dyeing 163
Figure 5-5: Dyes used on cellulose fibres 167
Figure 5-6: World-wide printed textile production 210
Figure 5-7: Fibre usage trends in printing 211
Figure 5-8: Trends in printing techniques 212
Figure 5-9: Schematic representation of discharge printing 214
Figure 5-10: Schematic representation of resist printing 214
Figure 5-11: Textile printing technologies 216
Figure 5-12: Stencil (screen) printing process 217
Figure 5-13: Flat-screen process 217
Figure 5-14A: Schematic representation of the flat-screen printing process 218
Figure 5-148: Schematic representation of the rotary-screen printing process 219
Figure 5-15: Relief (block) printing process 219
Figure 5-16: Gravure printing process 220
Figure 5-17: Schema of a roller printing form 221
Figure 5-18: Surface printing process 221
Figure 5-19: Schematic representation of jet-printing 224
Figure 5-20: Main components of a printing paste 232
Figure 5-21: Examples of acid dyes 277
Figure 5-22: Examples of typical basic dyes 280
Figure 5-23: Examples of typical direct dyes 281
Figure 5-24: Examples of molecular structures typical of 1.1 metal-complex dyes 285
Figure 5-25: Molecular structure typical of 1.2 metal-complex dyes 285


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