Handbook of Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres, Second Edition Edited by Anthony R. Bunsell

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Handbook of Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres, Second Edition
Edited by Anthony R. Bunsell
Handbook of Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres, Second Edition

Contents
List of contributors xiii
Biography xv
Acknowledgments xvii
1 Introduction to the science of fibers 1
Anthony R. Bunsell
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Units of measure for fibers and their structures 3
1.3 Fineness and flexibility 4
1.4 Typical fiber properties 9
1.5 Statistical nature of fiber properties 13
1.6 Conclusions 19
References 19
2 Testing and characterization of fibers 21
Anthony R. Bunsell, Sébastien Joann_es, Alba Marcellan
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Determining fiber dimensions 22
2.3 From the fiber surface morphology to its internal structure 27
2.4 Mechanical characterization 43
2.5 High temperature characterization 50
2.6 Conclusion 52
References 52
Further reading 55
Part One Animal fibres 57
3 Properties of wool 59
Michael G. Huson
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 Structure of wool 60
3.3 Models and theories of strength 68
3.4 Methods of measurement 70
3.5 Tensile failure 76
3.6 Applications and examples 89
3.7 Future trends 91
3.8 Sources of further information and advice 92
References 93
4 Physical, chemical, and tensile properties of cashmere, mohair,
alpaca, and other rare animal fibers 105
Bruce A. McGregor
4.1 Introduction 105
4.2 Structure 106
4.3 Tensile properties of fibers and textile products 122
4.4 Examples based on textile applications 126
4.5 Sources of further information 130
References 131
5 Silk: fibers, films, and compositesdtypes, processing, structure,
and mechanics 137
Philippe Colomban, Vincent Jauzein
5.1 Introduction 137
5.2 Silk 145
5.3 Mechanical properties and microstructure 155
5.4 Conclusions 172
Acknowledgments 173
References 173
6 Engineering properties of spider silk 185
Frank K. Ko, Lynn Y. Wan
6.1 Introduction 185
6.2 Structure 186
6.3 Tensile properties and constitutive model 189
6.4 Other engineering properties 207
6.5 Engineering properties of man-made spider silk 210
6.6 Summary and conclusions 213
Acknowledgments 214
References 214
Part Two Plant fibres 221
7 Tensile properties of cotton fibers: importance, research,
and limitations 223
Yehia Elmogahzy, Ramsis Farag
7.1 Introduction 223
7.2 The structural integrity of cotton fiber 225
7.3 The relationship between cotton fiber structure and fiber strength 227
7.4 Testing methods of the tensile behavior of cotton fibers 231
7.5 Strength characterization: the stressestrain curve 233
7.6 Tenacity or specific stress of cotton fibers 235
7.7 Breaking elongation (strain) 235
7.8 Stiffness or tensile rigidity of cotton fibers: the elastic modulus 237
7.9 The yield point 237
7.10 The toughness of cotton fibers 238
7.11 Cotton fiber elastic recovery 238
7.12 Adjustment for moisture content in cotton fiber strength testing 248
7.13 The harvesting process 254
7.14 The ginning process 255
7.15 The spinning preparation process 256
7.16 The spinning process 260
7.17 The fiber-to-yarn relationships in the context of the tensile
behavior of cotton fibers 264
References 270
Further reading 273
8 Tensile properties of flax fibers 275
Christophe Baley, Antoine Le Duigou, Claudine Morvan, Alain Bourmaud
8.1 Introduction: general data on flax, culture, and use of flax fibers 275
8.2 From plant to fibers 276
8.3 Single flax fiber description 281
8.4 Tensile mechanical properties of elementary flax fiber 283
8.5 Remarks on the use of flax fibers in the composite materials 289
8.5 Conclusion 292
References 293
9 Hemp, jute, banana, kenaf, ramie, sisal fibers 301
Manickam Ramesh
9.1 Introduction 301
9.2 Plant growth and harvesting techniques 302
9.3 Plant fiber extraction and separation process 305
9.4 Treatment and modification of plant fibers 308
9.5 Plant fibers 310
9.6 Properties of plant fibers 313
9.7 Plant fibers as reinforcements in biocomposites 317
9.8 Future prospects 317
9.9 Conclusion 317
References 318
Part Three Regenerated fibres 327
10 Regenerated cellulosic fibers 329
Avinash P. Manian, Tung Pham, Thomas Bechtold
10.1 Introduction 329
10.2 Manufacturing processes 329
10.3 Supramolecular structure 332
10.4 Manufacturing process variables 337
10.5 Summary 340
References 340
11 Structure and behavior of collagen fibers 345
Frederick H. Silver, Michael Jaffe, Ruchit G. Shah
11.1 Introduction 345
11.2 Collagen molecular structure 345
11.3 Supramolecular structure of collagen 349
11.4 Collagen crosslinking 350
11.5 Collagen self-assembly 350
11.6 Viscoelastic behavior of collagen fibers 352
11.7 Viscoelasticity of self-assembled type I collagen fibers 356
11.8 Collagen fiber failure 357
11.9 Nondestructive methods for studying mechanical behavior
of collagen fibers and tissues 358
11.10 Mechanotransduction 362
11.11 Conclusions 362
References 363
12 The chemistry, manufacture, and tensile behavior of
polyamide fibers 367
Ji_rí Militký, Mohanapriya Venkataraman, Rajesh Mishra
12.1 Introduction 367
12.2 Polyamide types 368
12.3 Morphology of polyamide fibers 373
12.4 Production and processing of polyamide fibers 385
12.5 Tensile properties of polyamide fibers 408
12.6 Failure mechanisms in polyamide fibers 413
12.7 Conclusion 414
References 414
Further reading 419
13 Tensile failure of polyester fibers 421
Ji_rí Militký
13.1 Introduction 421
13.2 Chemistry and production of polyester fibers 422
13.3 Processing and structure evolution in polyester fibers 435
13.4 Mechanical behavior of polyester fibers 458
13.5 Fibers containing naphthalene rings 491
13.6 Conclusions 500
References 500
Further reading 513
14 Tensile properties of polypropylene fibers 515
Emmanuel Richaud, Bruno Fayolle, Peter Davies
14.1 Introduction 515
14.2 Polypropylene structure and properties 515
14.3 Polypropylene fiber processing 519
14.4 Initial tensile properties 523
14.5 Fiber durability 526
14.6 Example of PP fiber ropes in service 531
14.7 Conclusions 535
References 536
15 Polyacrylonitrile fibers 545
Bhupender S. Gupta, Mehdi Afshari
15.1 Introduction 545
15.2 Preparation of acrylonitrile 547
15.3 Polymerization of acrylonitrile polymer 548
15.4 Stereoregularity and chain conformation of polyacrylonitrile 555
15.5 Acrylic fiber manufacturing 557
15.6 Structure of acrylic fibers 565
15.7 Physical properties of acrylic fibers 568
15.8 Carbon fiber precursor 570
15.9 Failure mechanisms of acrylic fibers 576
15.10 Conclusions 587
References 588
16 Tensile fatigue of thermoplastic fibers 595
Anthony R. Bunsell, J. Martin Herrera Ramirez, Christophe Le Clerc
16.1 Introduction 595
16.2 Principles of tensile fatigue 597
16.3 The tensile and fatigue failures of thermoplastic textile fibers
produced by melt spinning 598
16.4 Mechanisms involved in fiber fatigue 606
16.5 Tensile and fatigue failure at elevated temperatures and in
structures 612
16.6 Conclusions 617
Acknowledgments 617
References 617
Part Four High performance reinforcing synthetic fibres 619
17 Liquid crystalline organic fibers and their mechanical behavior 621
Alessandro Pegoretti, Matteo Traina
17.1 Introduction 621
17.2 Liquid crystalline aromatic polyamide fibers 625
17.3 Liquid crystalline aromatic heterocyclic fibers 653
17.4 Liquid crystalline aromatic copolyester fibers 667
17.5 Applications and examples 684
References 688
18 The manufacture, properties, and applications of high-strength,
high-modulus polyethylene fibers 699
Martin Vlasblom
18.1 Introduction 699
18.2 Manufacture 699
18.3 Fiber characteristics 704
18.4 Properties 708
18.5 Processing 735
18.6 Applications 742
References 753
19 The structure and properties of glass fibers 757
Frank R. Jones, Norman T. Huff
19.1 Introduction 757
19.2 The nature of glass 761
19.3 Fibre manufacture 772
19.4 Strength of glass fibers 776
19.5 Protection of fibers for strength retention 789
19.6 Recycling of glass fibres 797
19.7 Summary 799
References 799
20 Basalt fibers 805
Ji_rí Militký, Rajesh Mishra, Hafsa Jamshaid
20.1 Introduction 805
20.2 Composition and production of basalt fibers 807
20.3 Properties of basalt fibers 813
20.4 Influence of temperature on mechanical behavior of basalt fibers 821
20.5 Influence of acids and alkalis on mechanical behavior of basalt
fibers 825
20.6 Basalt filaments and fibers in composites 830
20.7 Conclusions 834
References 835
Further reading 840
21 The properties of carbon fibers 841
Bradley A. Newcomb, Han G. Chae
21.1 Introduction 841
21.2 Manufacturing 848
21.3 Mechanical properties 853
21.4 Thermal and electrical properties 861
21.5 Next-generation carbon fibers 863
References 863
22 Small-diameter silicon carbide fibers 873
Anthony R. Bunsell
22.1 Introduction 873
22.2 First-generation silicon carbide fibers 874
22.3 Second-generation small-diameter silicon carbide fibers 881
22.4 Third-generation small-diameter silicon carbide fibers 889
22.5 Surface coatings on silicon carbide fibers 896
22.6 Dielectric properties 897
22.7 Radiation resistance 897
22.8 Conclusions 899
Acknowledgments 899
References 899
23 Continuous oxide fibers 903
David Wilson
23.1 Introduction 903
23.2 Sol/gel fiber processing 904
23.3 Sol-gel chemistry and fiber microstructure 905
23.4 Comparative properties of oxide fibers 909
23.5 Fiber strength and properties 914
23.6 High-temperature fiber properties 920
23.7 Conclusions and future trends 924
23.8 Sources of further information 925
References 926
24 Fibers made by chemical vapor deposition 929
Xian Luo, Na Jin
24.1 Introduction 929
24.2 Boron fibers 930
24.3 Boron fiber production 930
24.4 Silicon carbide fiber 951
24.5 Conclusions 986
References 986
Index 993


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