Cotton Science and Processing Technology: Gene, Ginning, Garment and Green Recycling PDF by Hua Wang and Hafeezullah Memon

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Cotton Science and Processing Technology: Gene, Ginning, Garment and Green Recycling

By Hua Wang and Hafeezullah Memon

Cotton Science and Processing Technology_ Gene, Ginning, Garment and Green Recycling

Contents

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Hua Wang and Hafeezullah Memon

2 Status and Recent Progress in Determining the Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Cotton Crops . . . . . . . . . 15

Altaf Ahmed Simair and Sippy Pirah Simair

3 Advancements in Cotton Cultivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Hanur Meku Yesuf, Qin Xiaohong, and Abdul Khalique Jhatial

4 The Harvesting and Ginning of Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Mehran Dadgar

5 Physical Structure, Properties and Quality of Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Hua Wang, Muhammad Qasim Siddiqui, and Hafeezullah Memon

6 Cotton Fiber Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Muhammad Qasim Siddiqui, Hua Wang, and Hafeezullah Memon

7 Cotton Contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Biruk Fentahun Adamu and Bewuket Teshome Wagaye

8 Recent Advancements in Cotton Spinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Nabi Bakhsh, Muhammad Qamar Khan, Arsalan Ahmad,

and Tufail Hassan

9 Recent Advancements in Cotton Spinning

Machineries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Jianping Shi, Wenli Liang, Hua Wang, and Hafeezullah Memon

10 Cotton in Weaving Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

Shamima Akter Smriti, Farial Islam Farha, Fahmida Siddiqa,

Md. Jawad Ibn Amin, and Nawshin Farzana

11 Role of Cotton Fiber in Knitting Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

Nilufar Rahimovna Khankhadjaeva

12 Cotton in Nonwoven Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

Muhammad Awais Imran, Muhammad Qamar Khan, Abdul Salam,

and Arsalan Ahmad

13 Pretreatment of Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

Abdul Khalique Jhatial, Hanur Meku Yesuf,

and Bewuket Teshome Wagaye

14 Cotton Fiber and Yarn Dyeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

Sudev Dutta and Payal Bansal

15 Cotton Based Clothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

Haleema Khanzada, Muhammad Qamar Khan, and Saleha Kayani

16 Biomedical Application of Cotton and Its Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . 393

Mina Shahriari Khalaji and Ishaq Lugoloobi

17 Chemical Structure and Modification of Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417

Ishaq Lugoloobi and Hafeezullah Memon

18 Advanced Physical Applications of Modified Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . 433

Ishaq Lugoloobi, Hafeezullah Memon, Obed Akampumuza,

and Andrew Balilonda

19 Advanced Biological Applications of Modified Cotton . . . . . . . . . . 473

Ishaq Lugoloobi, Mina Shahriari Khalaji, and Hafeezullah Memon

20 Advanced Chemical Applications of Modified Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . 501

Ishaq Lugoloobi, Mike Tebyetekerwa, Hafeezullah Memon,

and Chao Sun

21 Recycled Cotton Fibers for Melange Yarn Manufacturing . . . . . . . 529

Bewuket Teshome Wagaye, Biruk Fentahun Adamu,

and Abdul Khalique Jhatial

22 Cotton Melange Yarn and Image Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547

Hua Wang, Habiba Halepoto, Muhammad Ather Iqbal Hussain,

and Saleha Noor

Preface
The publication of this book is of considerable significance if we look at the significant changes in the pattern of the international cotton trade. Today, the global trade volume of textiles and clothing has reached $425 billion. India and China have become the emerging world manufacturing powers. Asia produced a large number of colorful cotton textiles before the industrial revolution. After 1750, with cotton textiles leading the industrialization process of Europe, it also opened the transformation of the global economy. After the modernization of the textile industry, it is now back to Asia, and China has once again become the world’s largest manufacturing economy. Brazil’s cotton production is close to the threshold of 2 million tons, and it is possible to continue to increase in the future. The United States, India, and other countries have encountered specific problems in the planting period, making people worry about the production of cotton. For example, Texas in the United States has experienced long-term drought, diseases, and pests in India, and water shortage in Australian cotton.

American cotton accounts for about 40% of the world’s cotton trade. U.S. cotton exports play an important role in the world cotton situation. As an important international bulk agricultural product, cotton plays an important role in the global commodity trade. More than 150 countries in the world participate in the cotton import and export trade. Moreover, cotton trade is frequent, and the scale of trade is large. The change in international cotton trade patterns has a profound impact on global cotton production and marketing patterns. Global cotton exports have formed a new pattern, i.e., the United States, Africa, and India as the core, Brazil, Australia, and Uzbekistan as the central three countries. Under the new pattern, global cotton consumption with China, India, and Pakistan as the core, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and other Southeast Asian countries as the leading players. In recent years, India and other South and Southeast Asian countries are very suitable for the development of labor-intensive industries (cotton industry) due to the low domestic labor price and other factors, so the cotton consumption shows a significant growth trend. However, in the new cotton consumption pattern, China’s cotton consumption has declined in recent years, but it is still the world’s largest cotton consumer.

The overall decline of world cotton production has not caused a rebound in cotton prices, so China should guarantee the sustainable and stable cotton production, to prevent farmers from blindly expanding or reducing the planting area to cause dramatic fluctuations in cotton production. At the same time, it should be recognized that the current world cotton production depends on not only the quantity but also the quality of cotton.

As we all know, China is the largest developing country in the world. In the past 70 years, China has become the largest textile and clothing manufacturing country, globally. Therefore, I would like to introduce the achievements of cotton research and technology and the experience of cotton textile technology and industry development to developing countries all over the world through this book, because the world textile history has proved that the industrialization of all developed countries in the world starts from the development of the textile industry. In recent years, China’s cotton industry policy is gradually institutionalized and predictable.

No matter how to increase the quota of sliding standard tax or carry out the rotation of reserve cotton, it will be announced in advance. The government pays attention to the accuracy and timeliness of market regulation. The price fluctuation of the cotton market is gentle, and there is no significant rise and fall. China plays a vital role in global cotton production, consumption, and trade. As far as the cotton market is concerned, the Chinese and global cotton market is stable. Because China is both a “world factory” and a “world market.” At present, the population of China has reached 1.4 billion, the domestic demand market is enormous, and the consumption upgrading trend is obvious. From 2012 to 2018, China’s retail sales of clothing, shoes, hats, and knitwear have maintained a steady growth trend, reaching 1523.1 billion CNY in 2018. There is no doubt that China will still be the largest textile and clothing consumer market, globally. In the last 2 years, the Chinese government has vigorously promoted the reform of tax reduction and fee reduction, encouraged innovation and optimized the business environment, introduced a series of policies and measures conducive to the long-term development of the industry, and formed strong support for the domestic demand market.

Furthermore, this book reflects the current situation of cotton breeding and planting technology in the world. Modern cotton planting is emerging technology formed by information, precision, intelligence, and modern equipment, including information technology supported by satellite data service, precision sowing, precision fertilization, and growth monitoring and early warning, as well as controlled-release fertilizer, drip irrigation fertilizer, high-efficiency foliar fertilizer, rapid nutrient diagnosis and nontoxic green pesticides, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton. Satellite navigation makes it possible to plow and sow the land day and night, reducing the agricultural manipulator’s tension and the scheduling pressure of sowing season time. With agrarian plant protection, unmanned aerial vehicles, i.e., such as flying hand as a tool, are applied with pesticides, plant growth regulators, and defoliants, and many “new farmer” faces appear in the cotton field management. The mechanical cotton picker is the top modern agriculture equipment for mechanized harvesting that can reduce labor intensity and labor quantity per unit area and improve production efficiency, significantly.

The research of cotton cultivation clarifies the high-yield cultivation of cotton by the utilization of cotton nutrients; control of plant diseases and insect pests; salt, alkali, and drought-resistant cultivation; prevention of disasters; and physiological, biochemical, and ecological research. Cotton cultivation has been twice (double cropping) at the same time. However, the biological yield has been thrice economically because the number of bolls per unit area, boll weight, and crop yield have increased along with improved fiber quality, due to high photosynthetic efficiency during boll development artificial light and heat sources (warm water).

Breakthroughs have been made in the field of basic cotton research. In recent years, cotton scientists have made significant breakthroughs in cotton genome sequencing and functional genome research and made substantial contributions, and systematically reported the sequencing of diploid A and D genomes, the sequencing of tetraploid AD genomes as well as the assembly of high-quality heterotetraploid upland cotton and island cotton genomes. At the same time, based on the high-quality assembly sequencing, re-sequenced each ecotype and studied the gene locus of various character control. The completion of these achievements marks that cotton scientists are at the forefront in the world of the genome and functional genome research.

Besides, this book shows the latest achievements of cotton textile processing technology. The labor productivity of spinning has significantly increased with the continuous improvement of the textile manufacturing industry’s efficiency through the constant breakthrough of the automated technology of cotton textiles using of a series of advanced equipment. The average 10000-spindle labor force of ring spinning has decreased from 300 in the 1980s to 200 in 2000, and nearly 70 in Among them, more and more enterprises use the whole process of digital, automation, information, intelligent production lines, and use robots instead of personnel. The advanced production lines employ only ten people per 10000 spindles. The textile enterprises have improved the requirements of yarn quality and raw cotton quality. The new type of cotton textile equipment put new requirements for cotton quality forward. Different spinning equipment has different requirements for fiber quality index. Besides, rotor spinning, air-jet spinning, and friction spinning all require raw cotton to be clean, without or only allow a small number of impurities.

In the future, the first main direction of the world’s high-quality raw cotton production would be to improve basic quality, i.e., the cleanliness and consistency of raw cotton. Second, to improve the genetic quality, improve the fiber length and reduce the micronaire value, coordinate the length, strength, and fineness (micronaire value) indexes, and match the high quality with the early maturity. The third is to improve the quality of machine picked cotton to improve the early maturity to improve the defoliation effect and reduce the impurity content of seed cotton. Fourth is to improve the primary processing of seed cotton level, to minimize the damage of length during ginning.

As the Editor-in-Chief of this book, I am much honored to invite so many famous experts to complete this book together. I also thank Dr. Hafeezullah Memon for his assistance throughout the process. I am indebted to many world-famous cotton-breeding experts, cotton-planting experts, and textile experts who jointly contributed to this book for the World Textile University Alliance. This program is to prepare teaching materials, establish cotton-planting and textile training centers, train cotton researchers, cotton planting personnel, and textile engineering faculties for cotton-producing countries in Asia, Africa, and South America, to develop their economy, and improve their ability to working population. Finally, I would like to thank Springer, a prestigious international academic publishing institution that has published this book globally with full of academic and application value. I believe that this book will bring knowledge, technology, and development for the cotton and cotton textile industry of developing countries in the world and help all developing countries embark on industrialization.

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