Systems Engineering and Analysis, Fifth Edition
By Blanchard Fabrycky
Table of Contents
- Systems Science and Engineering
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 1
- Bringing Systems Into Being
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 23
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 55
- Preliminary System Design
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 101
- Detail Design and Development
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 133
- System Test, Evaluation, and Validation
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 157
- Alternatives and Models in Decision Making
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 179
- Models for Economic Evaluation
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 215
- Optimization in Design and Operations
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 251
- Queuing Theory and Analysis
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 303
- Control Concepts and Methods
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 361
- Design for Reliability
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 409
- Design for Maintainability
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 475
- Design for Usability (Human Factors)
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 535
- Design for Logistics and Supportability
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 565
- Design for Producibility, Disposability, and Sustainability
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 611
- Design for Affordability (Life-cycle Costing)
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 637
- Systems Engineering Planning and Organization
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 711
- Program Management, Control, and Evaluation
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 747
Appendix: Functional Analysis
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 773
Appendix: Design and Management Checklists
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 783
Appendix: Probability Theory and Analysis
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 789
Appendix: Probability and Statistical Tables
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 803
Appendix: Interest Factor Tables
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 811
Appendix: Finite Queuing Tables
Benjamin S. Blanchard/Wolter J. Fabrycky 821
Systems Science and Engineering
Systems are as pervasive as the universe in which they exist.They are as grand as the universe
itself or as infinitesimal as the atom. Systems appeared first in natural forms, but with the
advent of human beings, a variety of human-made systems have come into existence. In
recent decades, we have begun to understand the underlying structure and characteristics of
natural and human-made systems in a scientific way.
In this chapter, some system definitions and systems science concepts are presented to
provide a basis for the study of systems engineering and analysis.They include definitions of
system characteristics, a classification of systems into various types, consideration of the current
state of systems science, and a discussion of the transition to the Systems Age. Finally,
the chapter presents technology and the nature and role of engineering in the Systems Age
and ends with a number of commonly accepted definitions of systems engineering.
Upon completion of this chapter, the reader will have obtained essential insight into
systems and systems thinking, with an orientation toward systems engineering and analysis.
The system definitions, classifications, and concepts presented in this chapter are intended
to impart a general understanding about the following:
- System classifications, similarities, and dissimilarities;
- The fundamental distinction between natural and human-made systems;
- The elements of a system and the position of the system in the hierarchy of systems;
- The domain of systems science, with consideration of cybernetics, general systems
theory, and systemology;
- Technology as the progenitor for the creation of technical systems, recognizing its
impact on the natural world;
- The transition from the machine or industrial age to the Systems Age, with recognition
of its impact upon people and society;
- System complexity and scope and the demands these factors make on engineering in
the Systems Age; and
- The range of contemporary definitions of systems engineering used within the profession.
The final section of this chapter provides a summary of the key concepts and ideas
pertaining to systems science and engineering. It is augmented with selected references and
website addresses recommended for further inquiry.
1 SYSTEM DEFINITIONS AND ELEMENTS
A system is an assemblage or combination of functionally related elements or parts forming
a unitary whole, such as a river system or a transportation system. Not every set of items,
facts,methods, or procedures is a system. A random group of items in a room would constitute
a set with definite relationships between the items, but it would not qualify as a system
because of the absence of functional relationships. This text deals primarily with systems
that include physical elements and have useful purposes, including systems associated with
all kinds of products, structures, and services, as well as those that consist of a coordinated
body of methods or a complex scheme or plan of procedure.1
1.1 The Elements of a System
Systems are composed of components, attributes, and relationships. These are described
- Components are the parts of a system.
- Attributes are the properties (characteristics, configuration, qualities, powers, constraints,
and state) of the components and of the system as a whole.
- Relationships between pairs of linked components are the result of engineering the
attributes of both components so that the pair operates together effectively in contributing
to the system’s purpose(s).
The state is the situation (condition and location) at a point in time of the system, or of
a system component, with regard to its attributes and relationships.The situation of a system
may change over time in only certain ways, as in the on or off state of an electrical switching
system. A connected series of changes in the state over time comprise a behavior.The set of
all behaviors with their relative sequence and timing comprise the process.The process of a
component may control the process of another component.
A system is a set of interrelated components functioning together toward some
common objective(s) or purpose(s). The set of components meets the following
- The properties and behavior of each component of the set have an effect on the properties
and behavior of the set as a whole.
- The properties and behavior of each component of the set depend on the properties
and behavior of at least one other component in the set.
- Each possible subset of components meets the two requirements listed above; the
components cannot be divided into independent subsets.
1This definition-like description was influenced by the Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd ed.
(New York: Random House, Inc., 2001).