Psychology: Themes and Variations, 11th Edition PDF by Wayne Weiten


Psychology: Themes and Variations, 11th Edition

By Wayne Weiten

Psychology 11th Edition


C H A P T E R 1

The Evolution of psychology 2

1.1 psychology’s Early history 5

A New Science Is Born

The Battle of the “Schools” Begins:

Structuralism Versus Functionalism

Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture

Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviorism

Makes Its Debut

Skinner Questions Free Will as Behaviorism Flourishes

The Humanists Revolt

1.2 psychology’s Modern history 13

Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession

Psychology Returns to Its Roots: Renewed Interest

in Cognition and Physiology

Psychology Broadens Its Horizons: Increased Interest in

Cultural Diversity

Psychology Adapts: The Emergence

of Evolutionary Psychology

Psychology Moves in a Positive Direction

1.3 psychologies Today: Vigorous and Diversified 17

Research Areas in Psychology

Professional Specialties in Psychology

1.4 Seven Unifying Themes 20

Themes Related to Psychology as a Field of Study

Themes Related to Psychology’s Subject Matter

1.5 personal application: Improving academic

Performance 24

Developing Sound Study Habits

Improving Your Reading

Getting More out of Lectures

1.6 Critical Thinking application: developing Critical

Thinking Skills: an Introduction 28

The Skills and Attitudes of Critical Thinking

The Need to Teach Critical Thinking

An Example

Concept Chart 30

C H A P T E R 2

The Research

Enterprise in

Psychology 32

2.1 Looking for Laws: The Scientific approach to

Behavior 33

Goals of the Scientific Enterprise

Steps in a Scientific Investigation

Advantages of the Scientific Approach

2.2 Looking for Causes: Experimental Research 39

Independent and Dependent Variables

Experimental and Control Groups

Extraneous Variables

Variations in Designing Experiments

Advantages and Disadvantages of Experimental


2.3 Looking for Links: Descriptive/Correlational

Research 43

The Concept of Correlation

Naturalistic Observation

Case Studies


Advantages and Disadvantages

of Descriptive/Correlational Research

2.4 Looking for Flaws: Evaluating Research 49

Sampling Bias

Placebo Effects

Distortions in Self-Report Data

Experimenter Bias

The Importance of Replication

2.5 Looking at Ethics: Do the Ends

Justify the Means? 56

The Question of Deception

The Question of Animal Research

Ethical Principles in Research

2.6 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 59

2.7 personal applications: Finding and Reading

journal articles 60

The Nature of Technical Journals

Finding Journal Articles

Reading Journal Articles

2.8 Critical Thinking application: The Perils of anecdotal Evidence: “I Have a Friend who . . .” 62

Concept Chart 64

C H A P T E R 3

The Biological Bases of Behavior 66

3.1 Communication in the Nervous System 67

Nervous Tissue: The Basic Hardware

The Neural Impulse: Using Energy to Send Information

The Synapse: Where Neurons Meet

Neurotransmitters and Behavior

3.2 Organization of the Nervous System 76

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Central Nervous System

3.3 The Brain and Behavior 79

Looking Inside the Brain: Research Methods

The Hindbrain

The Midbrain

The Forebrain

The Plasticity of the Brain

3.4 Right Brain/Left Brain: Cerebral Specialization 87

Bisecting the Brain: Split-Brain Research

Hemispheric Specialization in the Intact Brain

3.5 The Endocrine System: another Way to

Communicate 91

3.6 heredity and Behavior: Is It all in the Genes? 92

Basic Principles of Genetics

Detecting Hereditary Influence: Research Methods

The Interplay of Heredity and Environment

3.7 The Evolutionary Bases of Behavior 98

Darwin’s Insights

Later Refinements to Evolutionary Theory

Behaviors as Adaptive Traits

3.8 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 100

3.9 personal application: Evaluating the Concept of

“Two minds in One” 101

Cerebral Specialization and Cognitive Processes

Complexities and Qualifications

3.10 Critical Thinking application: building better brains: The Perils of Extrapolation 104

The key Findings on Neural Development

The Tendency to Overextrapolate

Concept Chart 106

C H A P T E R 4

Sensation and

Perception 108

4.1 The Visual System: Essentials of Sight 110

The Stimulus: Light

The Eye: A Living Optical Instrument

The Retina: The Brain’s Envoy in the Eye

Vision and the Brain

Viewing the World in Color

4.2 The Visual System: perceptual processes 121

Perceiving Forms, Patterns, and Objects

Perceiving Depth or Distance

Perceptual Constancies in Vision

The Power of Misleading Cues: Visual Illusions

4.3 The auditory System: hearing 130

The Stimulus: Sound

Human Hearing Capacities

Sensory Processing in the Ear

Auditory Perception: Theories of Hearing

Auditory Localization: Perceiving Sources of Sound

4.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, and Touch 134

Taste: The Gustatory System

Smell: The Olfactory System

Touch: Sensory Systems in the Skin

4.5 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 142

4.6 personal application: appreciating art and Illusion 142

4.7 Critical Thinking application: Recognizing

Contrast Effects: It’s all Relative 146

Concept Chart 148

C H A P T E R 5

Variations in

Consciousness 150

5.1 On the Nature of Consciousness 151

Variations in Levels of Awareness

Consciousness and Brain Activity

5.2 Biological Rhythms and Sleep 153

The Role of Circadian Rhythms

Ignoring Circadian Rhythms

Realigning Circadian Rhythms

5.3 The Sleep and Waking Cycle 156

Cycling Through the Stages of Sleep

Age, Culture, and Sleep

Doing Without: Sleep Deprivation

Sleep Loss and Health

Problems in the Night: Sleep Disorders

5.4 The World of Dreams 166

The Contents of Dreams Culture and Dreams Theories of Dreaming

5.5 hypnosis: altered Consciousness or Role playing? 169

Hypnotic Induction and Phenomena

Theories of Hypnosis

5.6 Meditation: pursuing higher

Consciousness 172

5.7 altering Consciousness with Drugs 173

Principal Abused Drugs and Their Effects

Factors Influencing Drug Effects

Mechanisms of Drug Action

Drug Dependence

Drugs and Health

5.8 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 181

5.9 personal application: addressing Practical

Questions about Sleep and dreams 181

Common Questions about Sleep

Common Questions about Dreams

5.10 Critical Thinking application: Is alcoholism a disease? The Power of definitions 184

The Power to Make Definitions

Definitions, Labels, and Circular Reasoning

Concept Chart 186

C H A P T E R 6

Learning 188

6.1 Classical Conditioning 189

Pavlov’s Demonstration: “Psychic Reflexes”

Terminology and Procedures

Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning

6.2 Operant Conditioning 199

Skinner’s Demonstration: It’s All a Matter of


Terminology and Procedures

Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning


Schedules of Reinforcement

Positive Versus Negative Reinforcement


6.3 Changing Directions in the Study

of Conditioning 211

Recognizing Biological Constraints on Conditioning

Recognizing Cognitive Processes in Conditioning

6.4 Observational Learning 215

Basic Processes

Observational Learning and the Media Violence


6.5 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 220

6.6 personal application: achieving Self-Control

through behavior modification 221

Specifying Your Target Behavior

Gathering Baseline Data

Designing Your Program

Executing Your Program

6.7 Critical Thinking application: Recognizing

Contrast Effects: It’s all Relative 224

Classical Conditioning in Advertising

Classical Conditioning in Business Negotiations

Classical Conditioning in the World of Politics

Concept Chart 226

C H A P T E R 7

Human Memory 228

7.1 Encoding: Getting Information into Memory 230

The Role of Attention

Levels of Processing

Enriching Encoding

7.2 Storage: Maintaining

Information in Memory 233

Sensory Memory

Short-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory

How Is knowledge Represented in Memory?

7.3 Retrieval: Getting Information out of Memory 240

Using Cues to Aid Retrieval

Reinstating the Context of an Event

Reconstructing Memories

Source Monitoring

7.4 Forgetting: When Memory Lapses 242

How Quickly We Forget: Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

Measures of Forgetting

Why We Forget

The Repressed Memories Controversy

7.5 In Search of the Memory Trace:

The physiology of Memory 250

The Anatomy of Memory

The Neural Circuitry of Memory

7.6 Different Types of Memory Systems 253

Declarative Versus Nondeclarative Memory

Semantic Versus Episodic Memory

Prospective Versus Retrospective Memory

7.7 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 256

7.8 personal application: Improving Everyday memory 257

Engage in Adequate Rehearsal

Schedule Distributed Practice and Minimize Interference

Engage in Deep Processing and Organize Information

Enrich Encoding with Mnemonic Devices

7.9 Critical Thinking application: Understanding the

Fallibility of Eyewitness accounts 260

The Contribution of Hindsight Bias

The Contribution of Overconfidence

Concept Chart 262

C H A P T E R 8

Cognition and

Intelligence 264

8.1 Language: Turning Thoughts into Words 265

Language Acquisition

Learning More than One Language: Bilingualism

Culture, Language, and Thought

8.2 problem Solving: In Search of Solutions 269

Types of Problems

Barriers to Effective Problem Solving

Approaches to Problem Solving

Culture, Cognitive Style, and Problem Solving

8.3 Decision Making: Choices and Chances 276

Making Choices about Preferences

Heuristics in Judging Probabilities

The Tendency to Ignore Base Rates

The Conjunction Fallacy

Evolutionary Analyses of Fast and Frugal Heuristics

8.4 Measuring Intelligence 281

A Brief History

What Do Modern IQ Scores Mean?

Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Reliability?

Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity?

Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success?

Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures?

8.5 heredity and Environment as

Determinants of Intelligence 287

Evidence for Hereditary Influence

Evidence for Environmental Influence

The Interaction of Heredity and Environment

Cultural Differences in IQ Scores

8.6 New Directions in the Study of Intelligence 294

Exploring Biological Correlates of Intelligence

Investigating Cognitive Processes in Intelligent Behavior

Expanding the Concept of Intelligence

8.7 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 297

8.8 personal application: measuring and

Understanding Creativity 298

The Nature of Creativity

Measuring Creativity

Correlates of Creativity

8.9 Critical Thinking application: Understanding

Pitfalls in Reasoning about decisions 300

The Gambler’s Fallacy

Overestimating the Improbable

The Effects of Framing

Loss Aversion

Concept Chart 302

C H A P T E R 9

Motivation and

Emotion 304

9.1 Motivational Theories 306

Drive Theories

Incentive Theories

Evolutionary Theories

9.2 The Motivation of hunger and Eating 307

Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger

Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger

Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity

9.3 Sexual Motivation and Behavior 314

The Human Sexual Response

Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Motivation

The Mystery of Sexual Orientation

9.4 The achievement Motive 321

Individual Differences in the Need for Achievement

Situational Determinants of Achievement Behavior

9.5 Elements of Emotional Experience 323

The Cognitive Component

The Physiological Component

The Behavioral Component

Culture and the Elements of Emotion

9.6 Theories of Emotion 330

James-Lange Theory

Cannon-Bard Theory

Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory

Evolutionary Theories of Emotion

9.7 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 333

9.8 personal application: Exploring the Ingredients

of Happiness 334

How Happy Are People?

Weak Predictors of Happiness

Moderately Good Predictors of Happiness

Stronger Predictors of Happiness

Conclusions about Subjective Well-Being

9.9 Critical Thinking application: analyzing arguments: making Sense out of Controversy 338

The Anatomy of an Argument

Common Fallacies

Evaluating the Strength of Arguments

Concept Chart 340

C H A P T E R 1 0

Human Development across the

Life Span 342

10.1 progress Before Birth: prenatal Development 344

The Course of Prenatal Development

Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development

10.2 Motor, Social, and Language

Development in Childhood 349

Exploring the World: Motor Development

Early Emotional Development: Attachment

Learning to Communicate: Language Development

10.3 personality, Cognitive, and Moral Development in

Childhood 354

Becoming Unique: Personality Development

The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development

The Development of Moral Reasoning

10.4 The Transition of adolescence 362

Physiological Changes

Neural Development

The Search for Identity

Emerging Adulthood as a New Developmental Stage

10.5 The Expanse of adulthood 366

Personality Development

Transitions in Family Life

Aging and Physiological Changes

Aging and Neural Changes

Aging and Cognitive Changes

Death and Dying

10.6 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 374

10.7 personal application: Understanding gender differences 374

How Do the Genders Differ in Behavior?

Biological Origins of Gender Differences

Environmental Origins of Gender Differences

10.8 Critical Thinking application: are Fathers

Essential to Children’s well-being? 378

The Basic Argument

Evaluating the Argument

Concept Chart 380

C H A P T E R 1 1

Personality 382

11.1 The Nature of personality 384

Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness

Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions

The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits

11.2 psychodynamic perspectives 386

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

Jung’s Analytical Psychology

Adler’s Individual Psychology

Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives

11.3 Behavioral perspectives 395

Skinner’s Ideas Applied to Personality

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

Mischel and the Person-Situation Controversy

Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives

11.4 humanistic perspectives 398

Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory

Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization

Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives

11.5 Biological perspectives 403

Eysenck’s Theory

Behavioral Genetics and Personality

The Evolutionary Approach to Personality

Evaluating Biological Perspectives

11.6 Contemporary Empirical

approaches to personality 406


Terror Management Theory

11.7 Culture and personality 412

11.8 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 414

11.9 personal application: Understanding Personality

assessment 415

Self-Report Inventories

Projective Tests

11.10 Critical Thinking application: Hindsight in

Everyday analyses of Personality 418

The Prevalence of Hindsight Bias

Hindsight and Personality

Other Implications of “20-20 Hindsight”

Concept Chart 420

C H A P T E R 1 2

Social Behavior 422

12.1 person perception: Forming Impressions

of Others 424

Effects of Physical Appearance


Subjectivity in Person Perception

An Evolutionary Perspective on Bias in Person


12.2 attribution processes: Explaining Behavior 426

Internal Versus External Attributions

Attributions for Success and Failure

Bias in Attribution

Culture and Attributions

12.3 Interpersonal attraction: Liking

and Loving 430

key Factors in Attraction

Perspectives on the Mystery of Love

Culture and Close Relationships

The Internet and Close Relationships

An Evolutionary Perspective on Attraction

12.4 attitudes: Making Social Judgments 437

Components and Dimensions of Attitudes

Implicit Attitudes: Looking Beneath the Surface

Trying to Change Attitudes: Factors in Persuasion

Theories of Attitude Formation and Change

12.5 Conformity and Obedience: Yielding to Others 445



Cultural Variations in Conformity and Obedience

12.6 Behavior in Groups: Joining with Others 450

Behavior Alone and in Groups: The Case of the

Bystander Effect

Group Productivity and Social Loafing

Decision Making in Groups

12.7 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 453

12.8 personal application: Understanding

Prejudice 454

Sorting out Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism


Making Biased Attributions

Forming and Preserving Prejudicial Attitudes

Competition Between Groups

Dividing the World into Ingroups and Outgroups

12.9 Critical Thinking application: analyzing

Credibility and Social Influence Tactics 458

Evaluating Credibility

Recognizing Social Influence Strategies

Concept Chart 460

C H A P T E R 1 3

Stress, Coping,

and health 462

13.1 The Nature of Stress 463

Stress as an Everyday Event

Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder

Major Types of Stress

13.2 Responding to Stress 470

Emotional Responses

Physiological Responses

Behavioral Responses

13.3 Stress and physical health 478

Personality, Hostility, and Heart Disease

Emotional Reactions, Depression, and Heart Disease

Stress, Other Diseases, and Immune Functioning

Sizing Up the Link Between Stress and Illness

Factors Moderating the Impact of Stress

Positive Effects of Stress

13.4 health-Impairing Behavior 484


Alcohol and Drug Use

Lack of Exercise

Behavior and HIV/AIDS

13.5 Reactions to Illness 488

Deciding to Seek Treatment

Communicating with Health Providers

Adhering to Medical Advice

13.6 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 490

13.7 personal application: Improving Coping and

Stress management 491

Reappraisal: Ellis’s Rational Thinking

Humor as a Stress Reducer

Releasing Pent-up Emotions and Forgiving Others

Relaxing and Minimizing Physiological Vulnerability

13.8 Critical Thinking application: Thinking Rationally

about Health Statistics and decisions 494

Evaluating Statistics on Health Risks

Thinking Systematically About Health Decisions

Concept Chart 496

C H A P T E R 1 4


Disorders 498

14.1 General Concepts 499

The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior

Criteria of Abnormal Behavior

Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders

14.2 anxiety Disorders, OCD, and pTSD 504

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Specific Phobia

Panic Disorder


Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Etiology of Anxiety-Related Disturbances

14.3 Dissociative Disorders 509


Etiology of Dissociative Disorders

14.4 Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 511

Major Depressive Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

Mood Dysfunction and Suicide

Etiology of Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

14.5 Schizophrenic Disorders 517


Etiology of Schizophrenia

14.6 autism Spectrum Disorders 522

Symptoms and Prevalence

Etiology of ASD

14.7 personality Disorders 526

Antisocial, Borderline, and Narcissistic Personality


Etiology of Personality Disorders

14.8 Eating Disorders 529


Prevalence and Cultural Roots

Etiology of Eating Disorders

14.9 New Directions in the Study of psychological Disorders 532

The Role of Early-Life Stress in Adult Disorders

Genetic Overlap Among Major Disorders

14.10 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 533

14.11 personal application: Understanding

Psychological disorders and the law 534

Insanity Competency

Involuntary Commitment

14.12 Critical Thinking application: working with

Probabilities in Thinking about mental Illness 536

Concept Chart 538

C H A P T E R 1 5

Treatment of psychological Disorders 540

15.1 Elements of the Treatment process 542

Treatments: How Many Types Are There?

Clients: Who Seeks Therapy?

Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?

15.2 Insight Therapies 545


Client-Centered Therapy

Group Therapy

Couples and Family Therapy

How Effective Are Insight Therapies?

How Do Insight Therapies Work?

15.3 Behavior Therapies 552

Systematic Desensitization

Social Skills Training

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments

How Effective Are Behavior Therapies?

15.4 Biomedical Therapies 556

Treatment with Drugs

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

15.5 Current Trends in Treatment 561

Increasing Multicultural Sensitivity in Treatment

Using Technology to Expand the Delivery of Clinical Services

Blending Approaches to Treatment

15.6 Institutional Treatment in Transition 566

Disenchantment with Mental Hospitals


Mental Illness, the Revolving Door, and Homelessness

15.7 Reflecting on the Chapter’s Themes 569

15.8 personal application: looking for a

Therapist 569

Where Do You Find Therapeutic Services?

Is the Therapist’s Profession or Gender Important?

Is Treatment Always Expensive?

Is the Therapist’s Theoretical Approach Important?

What Is Therapy Like?

15.9 Critical Thinking application: From Crisis to

wellness—but was It the Therapy? 572

Concept Chart 574


Practice Tests, answers to the Concept Checks, and answers to

Indentifying Independent and Dependent Variables a1


Statistical Methods a25

Glossary G1

References R1

Name Index I1

Subject Index I13

Integrated Coverage Index I29

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