Understanding Human Sexuality, 15th Edition PDF by Janet Shibley Hyde

By

Understanding Human Sexuality, Fifteenth Edition

By Janet Shibley Hyde

Understanding Human Sexuality, 15th Edition PDF by Janet Shibley Hyde

Contents:

Preface xvii

CHAPTER 1

Sexuality in Perspective 1

Sex and Gender 2

The History of Understanding Sexuality:

Religion and Science 3

Religion • Science

The Media 6

Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality 7

Variations in Sexual Techniques •

Masturbation • Premarital and Extramarital

Sex • Sex with Same-Gender Partners •

Standards of Attractiveness • Social-Class and

Ethnic-Group Variations in the United States •

The Significance of Cross-Cultural Studies

A Sexually Diverse World: Sexuality in Two Societies 9

A Sexually Diverse World: The Psychology of Racism in

the United States 13

A Sexually Diverse World: Sex in China 16

Cross-Species Perspectives on Sexuality 19

Masturbation • Same-Gender Sexual Behavior •

Sexual Signaling • Human Uniqueness •

The Nonsexual Uses of Sexual Behavior

The Sexual Health Perspective 21

Critical Thinking Skill 22

Summary 23

Suggestions for Further Reading 23

CHAPTER 2

Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality 24

Evolutionary Theories 25

Sociobiology • Evolutionary Psychology •

Gender-Neutral Evolutionary Theory

Psychological Theories 28

Psychoanalytic Theory • Learning Theory •

Social Exchange Theory • Cognitive Theories

A Sexually Diverse World: Learning Theory and Sexual

Orientation in a Non-Western Society 34

Critical Theories 36

Feminist Theory • Queer Theory • Critical

Race Theory

Sociological Perspectives 38

Symbolic Interaction Theory • Sexual

Scripts • Social Institutions

Critical Thinking Skill 41

Summary 42

Suggestions for Further Reading 42

CHAPTER 3

Sex Research 43

Measuring Sex 44

Self-Reports • Behavioral Measures • Implicit

Measures • Biological Measures

Milestones in Sex Research: Masters and Johnson: The

Physiology of Sexual Response 46

Issues in Sex Research 47

Sampling • Accuracy of

Measurement • Extraneous Factors • EthicalIssues

The Major Sex Surveys 52

The Kinsey Report • The NHSLS • The

NSSHB • Sexual Behavior in Britain and

Australia • Race/Ethnicity in Research

Milestones in Sex Research: Alfred C. Kinsey 53

Studies of Special Populations 56

Milestones in Sex Research: Diversity Science 57

Web-Based Surveys 58

Media Content Analysis 59

Qualitative Methods 60

Experiments 61

Meta-Analysis 62

Statistical Concepts 63

Average • Variability • Average

versus Normal • Prevalence and

Frequency • Correlation

Critical Thinking Skill 65

Critical Thinking Skill 66

Summary 66

Suggestions for Further Reading 67

CHAPTER 4

Sexual Anatomy 68

Sex Organs in Female Bodies 69

External Organs

A Sexually Diverse World: Female Genital Cutting 73

Internal Organs • The Breasts

Sex Organs in Male Bodies 78

External Organs • Internal Organs

Cancer of the Sex Organs 83

Breast Cancer • Cancer of the Cervix,

Endometrium, and Ovaries • Cancer of the

Prostate • Cancer of the Testes

First Person: Testicular Examination 86

Critical Thinking Skill 87

Summary 88

Suggestions for Further Reading 88

CHAPTER 5

Sex Hormones, Sexual Differentiation,

and the Menstrual Cycle 89

Sex Hormones 90

Sex Hormone Systems in Male Bodies • Sex

Hormone Systems in Female Bodies

Prenatal Sexual Differentiation 93

Sex Chromosomes • Gonads • Prenatal

Hormones and the Genitals • Descent

of the Testes and Ovaries • Brain

Differentiation • Homologous

Organs • Atypical Prenatal Gender

Differentiation

Milestones in Sex Research: Endocrine Disrupters 95

Sexual Differentiation during Puberty 99

Changes in Girls

A Sexually Diverse World: The Debate over the

Treatment of Intersex Individuals 100

Changes in Boys • Changes in Behavior

The Menstrual Cycle 104

Biology of the Menstrual Cycle • Menstrual

Problems • Psychological Aspects of the

Menstrual Cycle • Cycles in Men

Critical Thinking Skill 112

Summary 112

Suggestions for Further Reading 113

CHAPTER 6

Pregnancy and Childbirth 114

Conception 115

Sperm Meets Egg: The Incredible

Journey • Improving the Chances of Conception:

Making a Baby

Development of the Conceptus 117

The Embryo and Its Support Systems • Fetal

Development

Pregnancy 120

The Stages of Pregnancy

A Sexually Diverse World: Race and Racism in

Pregnancy and Infant Mortality in the United

States 123

Sex during Pregnancy • Nutrition during

Pregnancy • Effects of Substances Taken during

Pregnancy

Birth 127

The Beginning of Labor • The

Stages of Labor • Cesarean Section

(C-Section) • Childbirth Options

After the Baby Is Born: The Postpartum Period 131

Physical Changes • Psychological

Changes • Attachment to the Baby • Sex Postpartum

Breast-Feeding 132

Biological Mechanisms • Physical and Mental

Health Problem Pregnancies 134

Ectopic Pregnancy • Pseudocyesis

(False Pregnancy) • Pregnancy-Induced

Hypertension • Birth Defects • Rh

Incompatibility • Miscarriage (Spontaneous

Abortion) • Preterm Birth Infertility 137

Causes of Infertility • Psychological Aspects of

Infertility • Treatment of Infertility

Assisted Reproductive Technologies 138

Artificial Insemination • Sperm Banks • Test-

Tube Babies • Embryo Transfer • GIFT and

ZIFT • Gender Selection • Prenatal Genetic

Diagnosis Critical Thinking Skill 141

Summary 142

Suggestions for Further Reading 143

CHAPTER 7

Contraception and Abortion 144

Hormonal Methods 145

The Combination Pill • Other Kinds of Pills •

The Patch • The Vaginal Ring • Depo-Provera

Injections (“The Shot”) • Emergency Contraception

First Person: Margaret Sanger—Birth Control

Pioneer 149

LARC 152

Implants Condoms 153

The Male Condom • The Female Condom

Diaphragms, FemCap, and the Sponge 156

The Diaphragm • FemCap • The Sponge

Spermicides 158

Withdrawal 160

Fertility Awareness (Rhythm) Methods 160

Sterilization 162

Male Sterilization • Female Sterilization

Psychological Aspects: Attitudes toward

Contraception 164

Milestones in Sex Research: History of the Development

of Sophisticated Methods of Contraception 165

Abortion 166

Abortion Procedures • Psychological

Aspects • Men and Abortion

A Sexually Diverse World: Abortion in

Cross-Cultural Perspective 168

New Advances in Contraception 170

Male Methods • Female Methods

Critical Thinking Skill 172

Summary 173

Suggestions for Further Reading 173

CHAPTER 8

Sexual Arousal 174

The Sexual Response Cycle 175

Excitement • Orgasm • Resolution • More

on Women’s Orgasms

Other Models of Sexual Response 180

Kaplan’s Triphasic Model • The Sexual

Excitation-Inhibition Model • Emotion and

Arousal

First Person: William Masters and Virginia

Johnson 181

Neural and Hormonal Bases of

Arousal 184

The Brain, the Spinal Cord, and Sex • Brain

Control of Sexual Response • Hormones

and Sex • Sex Offenders—Castration or

Incarceration?

A Sexually Diverse World: Sexuality and

Disability 186

Milestones in Sex Research: Mapping the Sexual

Brain 189

Pheromones 193

Sexual Techniques 194

Erogenous Zones • One-Person Sex • Two-

Person Sex • Aphrodisiacs • Sexual

Satisfaction

First Person: The Protestant Ethic:

Sex as Work 204

First Person: A Personal Growth Exercise—Getting to

Know Your Own Body 205

Critical Thinking Skill 206

Summary 206

Suggestions for Further Reading 207

CHAPTER 9

Sexuality and the Life Cycle:

Childhood and Adolescence 208

Data Sources 209

Infancy and the Preschool Years (Birth to 4

Years) 210

Attachment • Self-Stimulation • Child–Child

Encounters • Sexual Knowledge and

Interests • Knowledge about Gender

Childhood (5 to 11 Years) 212

Masturbation • Heterosexual

Behavior • Same-Gender Sexual

Behavior • Sex Knowledge and Interests • The

Sexualization of Children

Adolescence (12 to 18 Years) 214

Masturbation • Same-Gender Sexual

Behavior • Heterosexual Behavior • Too Early

Sex • Romantic Relationships • Internet

Use, Risk, and Sexting • Risky Sex and the

Adolescent Brain

Milestones in Sex Research: The Impact of the Media

on Adolescent Sexuality 216

Milestones in Sex Research: Teen Pregnancy and

Parenthood 221

The College Years 223

Masturbation • Patterns of Heterosexual

Behavior • Casual Sex • Same-Gender Sexual

Behavior

How Sexuality Aids in Development 225

Critical Thinking Skill 226

Summary 226

Suggestions for Further Reading 227

CHAPTER 10

Sexuality and the Life Cycle:

Adulthood 228

Sex and the Single Person 229

The Never Married • Being Single • Incels

Cohabitation 232

Marital Relationships 232

Marital Sexuality • Sexual Patterns

in Marriage • Sex and the Two-Career

Family • Cheating

Nonmonogamous Relationships 237

How Many People Engage in Extramarital

Sex? • Influences on Extramarital

Sex • Attitudes toward Extramarital

Sex • Internet Infidelity • Equity and

Extramarital Sex • Open Nonmonogamous

Relationships • Consequences of

Nonmonogamous Relationships

Postmarital Sex 242

Sex in Later Life 243

Physical Changes in Women • Physical

Changes in Men • Attitudes about Sex and the

Elderly • Sexual Behavior

A Sexually Diverse World: Culture and

Conceptualizations of Late Adulthood 245

Critical Thinking Skill 249

Summary 249

Suggestions for Further Reading 250

CHAPTER 11

Attraction, Love, and

Communication 251

Attraction 252

The Girl Next Door • Birds of a Feather •

Physical Attractiveness • The Interpersonal

Marketplace • Attraction Online • Explaining

Our Preferences

Intimacy 256

Defining Intimacy • Intimacy and Self-

Disclosure • Measuring Intimacy

Love 258

Triangular Theory of Love • Attachment Theory

of Love • Love Styles

Milestones in Sex Research: Jealousy 261

Passionate and Companionate Love • The

Biology of Love • Measuring Love • Two-

Component Theory of Love • Cross-Cultural

Research • The Far Reach of the Internet and

Western Values

Communication 266

Communication and Relationships • Techniques

of Good Communication • Fighting Fair •

Checking Out Sexy Signals • Relationship

Education

CHAPTER 9

Sexuality and the Life Cycle:

Childhood and Adolescence 208

Data Sources 209

Infancy and the Preschool Years (Birth to 4

Years) 210

Attachment • Self-Stimulation • Child–Child

Encounters • Sexual Knowledge and

Interests • Knowledge about Gender

Childhood (5 to 11 Years) 212

Masturbation • Heterosexual

Behavior • Same-Gender Sexual

Behavior • Sex Knowledge and Interests • The

Sexualization of Children

Adolescence (12 to 18 Years) 214

Masturbation • Same-Gender Sexual

Behavior • Heterosexual Behavior • Too Early

Sex • Romantic Relationships • Internet

Use, Risk, and Sexting • Risky Sex and the

Adolescent Brain

Milestones in Sex Research: The Impact of the Media

on Adolescent Sexuality 216

Milestones in Sex Research: Teen Pregnancy and

Parenthood 221

The College Years 223

Masturbation • Patterns of Heterosexual

Behavior • Casual Sex • Same-Gender Sexual

Behavior

How Sexuality Aids in Development 225

Critical Thinking Skill 226

Summary 226

Suggestions for Further Reading 227

CHAPTER 10

Sexuality and the Life Cycle:

Adulthood 228

Sex and the Single Person 229

The Never Married • Being Single • Incels

Cohabitation 232

Marital Relationships 232

Marital Sexuality • Sexual Patterns

in Marriage • Sex and the Two-Career

Family • Cheating

A Sexually Diverse World: Gender Differences in

Communication 270

First Person: How Solid Is Your Relationship? 273

Critical Thinking Skill 275

Summary 275

Suggestions for Further Reading 276

CHAPTER 12

Gender and Sexuality 277

Gender Roles and Stereotypes 278

Gender Roles and Race/Ethnicity • Socialization

Psychological Gender Differences 283

Gender Differences in Sexuality 283

Masturbation • Attitudes about Casual

Sex • Use of Pornography • Arousal to

Erotica • The Orgasm Gap • Sex Drive

Why the Differences? 286

Are the Differences Bogus? • Biological

Factors • Cultural Factors • Other Factors

A Sexually Diverse World: Male Sexuality 288

Beyond the Young Adults 290

Transgender Issues and Experience 290

Diagnosis Issues • The Experiences

of Trans People • Reducing Prejudice

and Discrimination against Trans

People • Transgender Development • Sexuality

for Trans People • Trans Health and Mental

Health • Social, Medical, and Surgical

Transition Processes • Affirmative Psychotherapy

with Transgender Individuals • What Causes

Gender Variation?

Milestones in Sex Research: Measuring Discrimination

against Trans People 293

Critical Thinking Skill 298

Summary 298

Suggestions for Further Reading 299

CHAPTER 13

Sexual Orientation: Gay,

Straight, or Bi? 300

Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians 301

Attitudes • Gays and Lesbians as a

Minority group

Life Experiences of LGBs 305

LGB Development • Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual

Culture and Communities • Gay and Lesbian

Relationships • Lesbian and Gay Families

Milestones in Sex Research: The Ethics of Sex

Research: The Tearoom Trade 309

How Many People Are Gay, Straight, or

Bi? 309

Sexual Orientation and Mental Health 311

Sin and the Medical Model • Research

Evidence • Can Sexual Orientation Be Changed

by Therapy?

A Sexually Diverse World: Race and the Well-Being of

LGBT People in the United States 312

Why Do People Become Gay or

Heterosexual? 314

Biological Theories • Learning Theory •

Sociological Theory • The Bottom Line

Differences between Gay Men and

Lesbians 317

Sexual Orientation in Multicultural

Perspective 318

A Sexually Diverse World: Ritualized Homosexuality in

Melanesia 319

Bisexuality 320

Stereotypes and Prejudice • Bisexual

Development • Mostly Heterosexuals •

Pansexuals • Concluding Reflections

First Person: Sexual Fluidity and Questioning 321

Critical Thinking Skill 323

Summary 324

Suggestions for Further Reading 325

CHAPTER 14

Variations in Sexual Behavior 326

When Is Sexual Behavior Abnormal? 327

Defining Abnormal • The Normal–Abnormal

Continuum

Fetishism 328

Why Do People Develop Fetishes?

First Person: A Case History of a Shoe Fetishist 329

Cross-Dressing 330

Drag • Female Impersonators • Transvestites

Sadism and Masochism 331

Definitions • Sadomasochistic Behavior

Milestones in Sex Research: Sexual Addictions? 332

Bondage and Discipline • Dominance and

Submission • Causes of BDSM • Race,

Racism, and BDSM

Voyeurism and Exhibitionism 335

Voyeurism • Exhibitionism

Hypersexuality and Asexuality 337

Hypersexuality • Asexuality

Cybersex Use and Abuse 339

Other Sexual Variations 340

Prevention of Sexual Variations 341

Treatment of Sexual Variations 342

Medical Treatments • Cognitive Behavioral

Therapies • Skills Training • AA-Type 12-Step

Programs • What Works?

Critical Thinking Skill 345

Summary 346

Suggestions for Further Reading 347

CHAPTER 15

Sexual Coercion 348

Rape 349

The Impact of Rape • Date Rape • Marital

Rape • Causes of Rape • The Role of Alcohol

in Sexual Assault • Rapists • Men as Victims of

Rape • Trans People as Victims • Prison Rape •

Race/Ethnicity and Rape • Preventing Rape

First Person: A Date-Rape Victim Tells Her Story 350

First Person: How Can Friends and Family

Help a Rape Survivor? 352

Milestones in Sex Research: Fraternity Gang

Rape 355

A Sexually Diverse World: Sexual Violence in Native

America 359

Child Sexual Abuse 361

Patterns of Child Sexual Abuse • Impact on the

Victim • The Offenders

Sexual Harassment 364

Sexual Harassment at Work • Sexual

Harassment in Education: An A for a

Lay • Doctor–Patient Sex

Critical Thinking Skill 368

Summary 368

Suggestions for Further Reading 369

CHAPTER 16

Sex for Sale 370

Prostitution 371

Venues for Sex Work • Pimps and

Madams • Sex Trafficking • The

Career of a Sex Worker • Sex Workers’

Well-Being • Customers • Male Sex

Workers • Sex Tourism

First Person: Working Their Way Through College 376

Pornography 379

The Porn Industry • The Producers • The

Performers • The Consumers • The Effects of

Exposure • Objections to Pornography

First Person: Behind the Scenes:

Making X-Rated Videos 384

First Person: “Nicole”: A Victim of Child

Pornography 385

Critical Thinking Skill 392

Summary 393

Suggestions for Further Reading 393

CHAPTER 17

Sexual Disorders and Sex

Therapy 394

Kinds of Sexual Disorders 395

Desire Disorders • Arousal Disorders •

Orgasmic Disorders • Pain Disorders

First Person: A Case of Female Orgasmic Disorder 398

What Causes Sexual Disorders? 399

Physical Causes • Drugs • Psychological

Causes • Combined Cognitive and Physiological

Factors • Interpersonal Factors • A New View

of Women’s Sexual Problems and Their Causes

Therapies for Sexual Disorders 406

Behavior Therapy • Cognitive Behavior

Therapy • Mindfulness Therapy • Acceptance

and Commitment Therapy • Couple

Therapy • Specific Treatments for Specific

Problems • Biomedical Therapies

First Person: A Case of Low Sexual Desire 408

Evaluating Sex Therapy 413

Some Practical Information 414

Avoiding Sexual Disorders • Choosing a Sex

Therapist

Critical Thinking Skill 416

Summary 417

Suggestions for Further Reading 417

CHAPTER 18

Sexually Transmitted

Infections 418

Chlamydia 419

Symptoms • Treatment • Prevention?

HPV 420

Diagnosis • Treatment • Vaccine

Genital Herpes 422

Symptoms • Treatment • Long–Term

Consequences • Psychological Aspects: Coping

with Herpes

HIV Infection and AIDS 423

An Epidemic? • Transmission

A Sexually Diverse World: AIDS in Thailand 424

The Virus • The Disease • Diagnosis •

Treatment • Women, Children, People of Color,

and AIDS • Psychological Considerations in

HIV/AIDS • Recent Progress in AIDS Research

Gonorrhea 428

First Person: Safer Sex in the AIDS Era 429

Symptoms • Diagnosis • Treatment

Syphilis 431

Symptoms • Diagnosis • Treatment

Hepatitis B 433

Trichomoniasis 433

Pubic Lice 433

Protecting Yourself 434

Other Genital Infections 434

Candida • Prostatitis

First Person: Cool Lines about Safer Sex 435

Critical Thinking Skill 436

Summary 436

Suggestions for Further Reading 437

CHAPTER 19

Ethics, Religion, and Sexuality 438

Basic Concepts 439

Sexuality in Great Ethical Traditions 440

Classical Greek Philosophy • Judaism •

Christianity • Humanism

Sexuality in Other Major Religions 445

Islam • Hinduism • Buddhism

A Sexually Diverse World: Dissent over Sexual Ethics in

the Roman Catholic Church 446

Contemporary Issues in Sexual Ethics 449

Sex Outside Marriage • Contraception •

Abortion • Same-Gender Sexuality

A Sexually Diverse World: Religious Position

Statements on Abortion: Pro-life versus

Pro-choice 455

Technology and Sexual Ethics 456

Toward an Ethics of Human Sexuality 459

Critical Thinking Skill 460

Summary 460

Suggestions for Further Reading 461

CHAPTER 20

Sex and the Law 462

Why Are There Sex Laws? 463

What Kinds of Sex Laws Are There? 464

Crimes of Exploitation and Force • Criminal

Consensual Acts • Crimes against Good Taste •

Crimes against Reproduction • Criminal

Commercial Sex

A Sexually Diverse World: Universal

Sexual Rights 467

Discriminatory Laws Related to Sexuality 468

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity •

Same-Sex Marriage

A Sexually Diverse World: Legal Issues for

Transgender Persons 470

Sex-Law Enforcement 471

Principles in Sex-Law Reform 471

Efforts at Sex-Law Reform • Right to Privacy •

Equal Protection • Victimless Crimes •

Freedom of Speech • Reproductive Rights •

Race, Social Class, and Sex Laws

Sex and the Law in the Future 482

Sex-Law Reform and Backlash • The Legal

Challenge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Critical Thinking Skill 484

Summary 485

Suggestions for Further Reading 485

EPILOGUE

Looking to the Future: Sexuality Education 486

In the Home, in the School, or Somewhere Else? 487

What to Teach at Different Ages 488

Children’s Sexual Knowledge • Children’s

Sexual Interests The Curriculum 489

Abstinence-Only Programs • The Politics

of Sexuality Education • HIV/AIDS Risk

Education • Comprehensive, Theoretically Based Programs

A Sampling from a Comprehensive Sexuality Education

Curriculum 491

The Teacher 493

Condom Availability 494

Race and Sexuality Education 494

Bibliography B-2

Glossary G-2

Index I-1

Directory of Resources DR-2

McGraw Hill Education

Psychology APA Documentation

Style Guide

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