State and Local Government, 11th Edition PDF by Ann O’M Bowman, Richard C Kearney with Carmine P F Scavo


State and Local Government, Eleventh Edition

By Ann O’M. Bowman, Richard C. Kearney with Carmine P. F. Scavo

State and Local Government, Eleventh Edition


Preface vii

1 State and Local Governments:

New Directions 1

Studying State and Local Governments

in the Twenty-First C entury 2

The Capacity of States and Localities 6

The People: Designers and Consumers

of Government 18

Linking Capacity to Results 25

Chapter Recap 26

Should Governments Have Innovation

Offices? 10

Creating an Image, Rebranding a

Place 17

2 Federalism and the States: Sorting

Out Roles and Responsibilities 27

The Concept of Federalism 29

The History of U.S. Federalism 31

Models of Federalism 43

Intergovernmental Relations 46

Federal Purse Strings 51

The Future of Federalism 55

Chapter Recap 58

What Level of Government Should Take

the Lead for P andemic Threats? 38

Should the States Legalize

Marijuana? 57

3 State Constitutions: The

Fundamental Rules of State

Government 60

The History and Development of the

Fundamental Documents 61

The Evolution of State Constitutions 62

Constitutional Reform 69

Methods for Constitutional Change 75

State Responsiveness and

Constitutional Reform 82

Chapter Recap 83

New States’ Rights? 72

Should Washington, DC Become the

51st State? 76

4 Citizen Participation and

Elections: Engaging the Public in

Government 84

Participation 85

Elections 94

Direct Democracy 101

Citizen Access to Government 107

The Effects of Citizen

Participation 112

Chapter Recap 113

Voter ID Laws: Good or Bad

Idea? 91

Participatory Budgeting: Letting the

Public Decide How to Spend Public

Money 108

5 Political Parties, Interest Groups,

and Campaigns: Influencing Public

Policy 114

Political Parties 115

Interest Groups 125

Political Campaigns 134

Chapter Recap 143

Opening Up the Ballot to More

Parties 122

Should Political Spending in

Campaigns Be Unrestricted by

Government? 143

6 State Legislatures: The People’ s

Representatives 145

The Essence of Legislatures 146

Legislative Dynamics 147

Legislative Behavior 157

How a Bill Becomes Law (or Not) 159

Legislative Reform and Capacity 161

Relationship with the Executive

Branch 168

Legislatures and Capacity 171

Chapter Recap 172

Do-It-Yourself e-Redistricting 152

Should State Legislatures Be More

Professionalized? 164

7 Governors: Power, Politics, and

Executive Leadership 174

The Office of Governor 176

Being Governor: Duties and

Responsibilities 181

Formal and Informal Powers of the

Governor 189

Informal Powers 199

Leaving Office 203

Other Executive Branch Officials 204

The Capability of U.S. Governors 206

Chapter Recap 207

Is Private Sector Experience the

Best Preparation for the

Governorship? 180

Should Executive Branch Officers Be

Elected? 193

8 aPnudb lSice Arvdicmei nDisetlrivaetiroyn :2 0B8udgeting

Public Employees in State and Local

Governments: Who They Are, What

They Do 210

Budgeting in State and Local

Governments 213

Human Resource Policy in State and

Local Governments: Patronage

Versus Merit 221

The Politics of Bureaucracy 232

New Public Management 234

The Quality of Public

Administration 239

Chapter Recap 240

Take the Children into Custody or

Leave Them with Their Mom? 212

Social Media: Problematic or

Panacea? 240

9 The Judiciary: Independence vs

Accountability 242

The Structure of State Court

Systems 244

How Judges Are Selected 248

Judicial Decision Making 258

Judicial Federalism 264

Administrative and Organizational

I mprovements in State Courts 266

Chapter Recap 270

Judges: Elected, Appointed, or

Merit-Selected? 257

What if the Jury Pool Becomes a

Puddle? 260

10 Local Government: Types and

Functions 271

Orientations to Communities 272

County Government 276

Towns and Townships 294

Special Districts 296

School Districts 298

Communities and Governance 300

Chapter Recap 301

Should Public Employees Have to Live

Where They Work? 280

Outsourcing City Services 289

11 Local Leadership and Governance:

Continuity and Change 303

Community Power 305

Property Rights: A Matter of Power 310

Local Executives 311

Local Legislatures 321

Leadership and Capacity 327

Chapter Recap 329

Should All Cities Have a Strong

Mayor? 313

The Mayor, the City Council,

and Walmart . . . and the

Community 328

12 State-Local Relations: Fifty

Different Systems 330

The Distribution of Authority 331

Metropolitics: A New Challenge for

State Government 339

States and Urban Policy 349

States and Their Rural C ommunities 353

The Interaction of State and Local

Governments 355

Chapter Recap 356

Should a State Bail Out Its Financially

Stressed Local Governments? 334

One Big California or Several

Regional Californias? 348

13 Taxing and Spending: Where the

Money Comes from and Where It

Goes 358

The Principles of Finance 359

Revenues 363

The Political Economy of Taxation 377

Managing Money 384

Cu Frriennatn Icses ue3s8 i8n State and Local

Chapter Recap 389

Should Medical Marijuana Be

Taxed? 373

The State’s Responsibility in Local

Bankruptcy Events 387

14 Economic Development:

Competing for Growth 391

Regional Differences in Economic

Prosperity 393

Approaches to Economic

Development 396

The Politics of Economic Growth 398

Current Approaches 400

Persistent Questions 408

The Implications of Economic

Development Policy 414

Chapter Recap 415

The Creative Class and Cool

Cities 395

Should a State Government Provide

Tax Incentives to the Film Industry

to Make Movies There? 412

15 Education Policy: Reading,

Writing, and Reform 417

Is There a Crisis in Education? 419

Intergovernmental Roles in

Education 424

The Education Policy Actors 433

The State Education Policy

Leaders 436

Educational Innovation in the

States 438

The Continuing Challenges of Public

Education 451

Chapter Recap 453

Should States Implement Common

Core Standards? 441

Should Teachers Have Tenure? 446

16 CCroirmreincatilo Jnuss tic4e5:4 Cops and

How Much Crime Is There? 456

Fighting Crime 457

The Ongoing Challenge of Crime

Fighting 460

Intergovernmental Roles in Criminal

Justice 460

Actors in Criminal Justice Policy 461

How Policy Participants Interact: Two

Policy Areas 465

Capital Punishment 467

Correctional Policy 471

Policy Alternatives for States and

Localities 477

The Current Challenge in Crime and

Corrections 484

Chapter Recap 485

Should Potentially Invasive

Data-Driven Policing

Technology Be Restricted or

Prohibited? 459

Are Private Prisons a Good

Idea? 483

17 Social Welfare and Health Care

Policy: Addressing Poverty and

Sickness 486

Thinking About—and

Measuring— Poverty 487

Social Welfare and Ideology 489

Current Social Welfare Policy 491

Types of Social Welfare Programs 492

State Innovations in Social

Welfare 499

Turning Welfare Checks into

Paychecks 503

Health Care 506

Chapter Recap 512

Combatting Homelessness 497

Should Welfare Recipients Be Drug

Tested? 505

18 Environmental Policy: Regulation

and Innovation 513

The Political Economy of Environmental

Protection 515

New Approaches: Moving Toward

Sustainability 517

Clean Air, Clean Water, and Politics 518

The Greening of States and

Localities 522

State Commitment to Environmental

Protection 523

Dealing with Waste 528

Two Challenges for Policy Makers 536

From Short Term to Long Term 540

Chapter Recap 541

The Challenges of Regulating

Polluters 524

Should Cities Enact Plastic Bag

Bans? 531

References 543

Index 572

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