Choices: Interviewing and Counselling Skills for Canadians, 8th Edition PDF by Bob Shebib

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Choices: Interviewing and Counselling Skills for Canadians, Eighth Edition

By Bob Shebib

Choices Interviewing and Counselling Skills for Canadians, 8th Edition

Contents:

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xxiii

1 Professional Identity: Ethics, Values, and

Self-Awareness 1

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1

Creating Safety for Change 2

The Counselling Community 2

Values: Doing What’s Important and Worthy 5

Belief in the Dignity and Worth of People 5

Client Self-Determination 6

CONVERSATION 1.1 Gallows Humour 8

Rights of Children 8

Ethics: Doing What’s Right 8

Dual Relationships 10

Professional Boundaries 10

Confidentiality 11

BRAIN BYTE Ethical and Moral Decision Making 14

Ethical Dilemmas: Tough Decisions 14

Types of Ethical Dilemmas 14

Resolving Ethical Dilemmas 15

BRAIN BYTE Ethics and Neuroscience 16

Multicultural Ethical Issues 19

Ethical Engagement with Indigenous Peoples 20

Ethical Engagement with the LGBTQ

Community 21

CONVERSATION 1.2 Values and Ethics Conflict 22

Objectivity 23

CONVERSATION 1.3 Personal Feelings Get in the Way 23

CONVERSATION 1.4 Personal Involvement with Clients 25

The Competent Counsellor 25

CONVERSATION 1.5 I’m Just a Beginner 27

Self-Awareness 27

The Importance of Self-Awareness 27

Increasing Self-Awareness 28

Understanding How Bias Can Affect

Counselling 29

Privilege and Bias 31

Who Am I? How Do Others See Me? 33

Personal Needs 34

Personal and Cultural Values 36

Professional Survival 38

Summary 39

Exercises 40

Weblinks 43

2 Cultural Intelligence 44

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 44

The Elements of Cultural Intelligence 44

The Importance of Multicultural Involvement 46

Canadian Diversity 46

BRAIN BYTE Cultural Neuroscience 47

Canadian Immigration 48

Challenges Faced by Immigrants and Refugees 50

Sociopolitical Realities 52

BRAIN BYTE Intergenerational Trauma 52

Culture and Diversity: Key Elements 54

Worldview 54

Individualism versus Collectivism 56

BRAIN BYTE Culture and the Pleasure Centre 57

BRAIN BYTE Culture and the Brain 58

Communication Style 59

Relationship Expectations 61

Time Orientation 62

Counselling Immigrants and Multicultural Clients 63

Barriers to Culturally Intelligent Practice 63

Controlling the Tendency to Stereotype 64

Respecting Diversity and Individual Differences 65

Learning from Clients 65

Seniors 66

Counsellor Self-Awareness 67

Indigenous Clients 68

Indigenous Demographics 69

Indigenous Values and Worldviews 70

Traditional Healing Practices 73

CONVERSATION 2.1 Ideas for Working with Indigenous

Peoples 74

LGBTQ Communities 74

BRAIN BYTE LGBTQ Thinking and Behaviour 76

Strengths and Defining Features of LGBTQ

Communities 76

Prejudice and Discrimination 77

Mental Health 79

Spirituality and Religion 79

Youth 80

Counsellor Competence (Working with

LGBTQ Clients) 81

Spirituality and Counselling 82

BRAIN BYTE Spiritual Neuroscience 83

CONVERSATION 2.2 Praying with Clients 85

Summary 85

Exercises 86

Weblinks 87

vi Contents

3 The Process, Skills, and Pitfalls of

Counselling 88

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 88

What Is Counselling? 88

BRAIN BYTE Counselling and the Brain 89

CONVERSATION 3.1 Counselling and Psychotherapy 91

Choices: The Need for Versatility 91

BRAIN BYTE Music 93

Brief Encounters 94

Trauma-Informed Practice 94

BRAIN BYTE Trauma 95

BRAIN BYTE Strengths-Based Counselling 96

Relationship Issues 96

Counselling Skills and Strategies 97

Relationship-Building Skills 99

Exploring and Probing Skills 101

Empowering Skills 102

Promoting Change Skills and Strategies 103

The Phases of Counselling 104

The Preliminary Phase 107

CONVERSATION 3.2 Helpful Friends and Counsellors 107

The Beginning Phase 109

CONVERSATION 3.3 Should I Read the File? 110

The Action Phase 112

The Ending Phase 113

Counselling Pitfalls: Barriers to Success 114

Client Issues 115

Counsellor Issues 115

Common Mistakes 116

CONVERSATION 3.4 Rescuing and Supporting 120

Summary 121

Exercises 121

Weblinks 122

4 Relationship: The Foundation for Change 123

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 123

The Importance of the Relationship 123

BRAIN BYTE The Brain on Relationship 125

Definition 126

BRAIN BYTE Oxytocin 127

Relationship and the Phases of Counselling 127

Carl Rogers and the Core Conditions 129

CONVERSATION 4.1 Unconditional Positive Regard 131

Core Conditions: A Starting Point for

Counsellors 132

CONVERSATION 4.2 Genuineness 133

Role and Purpose: Counselling Contracts 133

Objective of Contracting 133

Relationship Contracts 134

Anticipatory Contracts 137

Work Contracts 137

INTERVIEW 4.1 Contracting 140

Engaging with Seniors 142

Sustaining the Counselling Relationship 143

Immediacy 143

INTERVIEW 4.2 Immediacy 145

Transference and Countertransference 146

BRAIN BYTE Transference 147

BRAIN BYTE Childhood Abuse and Intimate Relationships 148

CONVERSATION 4.3 Counsellor Self-Disclosure 148

Ending the Counselling Relationship 148

BRAIN BYTE Endings 149

Dealing with Endings 150

CONVERSATION 4.4 Boundaries 151

INTERVIEW 4.3 Endings 152

Summary 153

Exercises 153

Weblinks 155

5 Listening and Responding: The Beginning

of Understanding 156

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 156

Listening: a Pathway to Learning 156

The Power of Listening 158

Listening Barriers 159

BRAIN BYTE Listening 159

Overcoming Listening Barriers 161

BRAIN BYTE The Auditory Alarm System 161

BRAIN BYTE The Right Ear Advantage 164

Active Listening 165

Attending 166

BRAIN BYTE Frame of Reference 167

Selective Attention 168

BRAIN BYTE Multitasking 168

Nonverbal Communication 170

Meaning of Nonverbal Communication 171

CONVERSATION 5.1 Problems with Listening and

Responding 172

BRAIN BYTE Nonverbal Processing 173

Working with Nonverbal Communication 175

Silence 175

Understanding Silence 175

BRAIN BYTE The Benefits of Silence 176

Silence in Counselling 176

BRAIN BYTE Silence Triggers Memories 176

Nonverbal Cues and Silence 180

Encouraging Silence 181

CONVERSATION 5.2 Learning to Deal with Silence 182

CONVERSATION 5.3 Residential Schools 182

Co n t e n t s vii

Paraphrasing 182

Paraphrasing and Empathy 183

Summarizing 184

CONVERSATION 5.4 Effective Paraphrasing 184

INTERVIEW 5.1 Listening, Silence, and Summarizing

Skills 187

Summary 188

Exercises 189

Weblinks 190

6 Asking Questions: The Search

for Meaning 191

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 191

The Art of Asking Questions 191

Types of Questions 192

BRAIN BYTE Memory 193

Reasons for Asking Questions 196

Questions for Establishing Purpose 196

Questions to Define the Counselling

Relationship 197

Questions for Exploring and Understanding 197

Questions for Problem Solving 199

Questions for Evaluating 200

BRAIN BYTE Questions and the Brain 200

Questioning Pitfalls 201

Leading (Biased) Questions 201

Excessive Questioning 202

CONVERSATION 6.1 Alternatives to Questions 203

Multiple Questions 204

Irrelevant Questions 205

Poorly Timed Questions 205

Why Questions 205

Cross-Cultural Interviewing 206

Special Considerations 207

When Clients Respond Poorly to Questions 207

Managing the Rambling Interview 208

Interviewing Youth 210

BRAIN BYTE The Adolescent Brain 210

Interviewing and Counselling Seniors 211

Senior Abuse 212

Beyond the Surface: Interviewing for

Concreteness 214

The Need for Concreteness 214

BRAIN BYTE Neural Development and Marginalization 214

Strategies for Achieving Concreteness 217

Making Choices 219

Interview Transitions 220

Natural Transitions 220

Strategic Transitions 220

Control Transitions 220

Phase Transitions 221

CONVERSATION 6.2 Note-Taking 222

Connect (Linking) Transitions 223

INTERVIEW 6.1 Interviewing Skills 223

Summary 224

Exercises 225

Weblinks 226

7 Empathic Connections 227

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 227

Understanding Emotions 227

BRAIN BYTE Emotional Memories 229

BRAIN BYTE Mirror Neurons 230

The Language of Emotion 230

Individual Differences and Cultural Context 233

Mixed Feelings/Ambivalence 234

Affect 235

Empathy 236

Empathy Defined 236

The Importance of Empathy 237

BRAIN BYTE Location of Empathy in the Brain 238

BRAIN BYTE Selective Empathy 239

Client Reactions to Empathy 239

CONVERSATION 7.1 Increasing Empathic Vocabulary 240

Types of Empathy 241

Invitational Empathy 241

Basic Empathy 243

BRAIN BYTE Empathic Connection and Brain Plasticity 243

Inferred Empathy 244

BRAIN BYTE Helping Others and Empathic Circuits 244

Preparatory Empathy 246

CONVERSATION 7.2 When Not to Use Empathy 247

Four Generalizations about Empathy 247

Empathic Response Leads 250

Why Achieving Empathic Connection

Is So Difficult 251

CONVERSATION 7.3 When to Shift the Focus Away

from Feelings 251

Poor Substitutes for Empathy 252

INTERVIEW 7.1 Poor Substitutes for Empathy 253

Tough Empathy 255

CONVERSATION 7.4 How Can I Be Empathic if I Have Not Had

the Same Experience? 255

INTERVIEW 7.2 Effective Use of Empathy 256

Summary 258

Exercises 258

Weblinks 262

8 Supporting Empowerment and Change 263

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 263

Empowerment: Mobilizing Strengths for Change 263

Client Empowerment Is an Expected Outcome of

Counselling 264

Anti-Oppressive Practice 265

viii Contents

Empowerment: The Strengths Approach 265

BRAIN BYTE Stress and Crisis 268

Empowerment and Selected Groups 268

Seniors 268

LGBTQ Communities 269

Indigenous Peoples 271

Crisis Intervention and Empowerment 271

Motivational Interviewing (MI) 273

Four Key Principles of Motivational Interviewing 275

  1. Express Empathy 275
  2. Develop Discrepancy 275
  3. “Roll with Resistance” 276
  4. Support Self-Efficacy 277

Stages of Change 277

Risk Taking 277

CONVERSATION 8.1 Working with “Lazy” Clients 277

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy 281

Helping Clients Recognize Thinking Patterns 283

Unhelpful Thinking Patterns 284

BRAIN BYTE The Emotional Brain 285

Helping Clients Increase Helpful Thinking 286

Reframing 289

BRAIN BYTE Mindfulness 289

BRAIN BYTE Creating New Neural Pathways 291

BRAIN BYTE Neurons That Fire Together 291

INTERVIEW 8.1 Cognitive Behavioural Techniques 292

CONVERSATION 8.2 When Buttons Are Pushed 294

Helping Clients Make Behavioural Changes 294

Goal Setting 294

Developing Effective Goal Statements 295

INTERVIEW 8.2 Goal Setting 298

The Problem-Solving Process 299

Step 1: Identify Alternatives 300

Step 2: Choose an Action Strategy 300

Step 3: Develop and Implement Plans 300

Step 4: Evaluate Outcomes 302

CONVERSATION 8.3 I’ve Tried Everything 303

Brief Counselling 303

Selected Brief Counselling Techniques 303

Summary 308

Exercises 308

Weblinks 309

9 Engaging with Hard-to-Reach Clients 310

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 310

Resistance 310

Signs of Resistance 311

Understanding and Responding to Resistance 312

BRAIN BYTE Resistance 316

Resistance and Counsellor Self-Awareness 316

CONVERSATION 9.1 Working with “Involuntary” Clients 317

INTERVIEW 9.1 Dealing with Resistance 318

Confrontation: Proceed with Caution 319

CONVERSATION 9.2 Saying No 320

Types of Confrontation 320

The Misuse of Confrontation 321

Principles for Effective Confrontation 322

Aggression and Violence 324

Risk Assessment for Violence 326

BRAIN BYTE Neuroscience as a Tool to Predict Violence 326

Violence and Mental Illness 328

BRAIN BYTE Head Trauma and Violence 329

Violence Risk Assessment: Key Questions 330

Managing Angry and Potentially Violent

Behaviour 330

BRAIN BYTE Aggression 331

BRAIN BYTE Flight or Fight 332

The Phases of Violence 332

BRAIN BYTE The Brain on Anger 338

Critical Incident Debriefing 338

INTERVIEW 9.2 Violent Incident Follow-Up 339

CONVERSATION 9.3 After an Assault 340

Counselling Angry and Violent Clients 341

Prevention 341

Assertiveness Training 341

Cognitive Behavioural Counselling (Therapy) 342

Anger Management 342

Substance Misuse Interventions 342

Psychiatric Intervention 342

Reduction of Environmental, Social, and Personal

Stressors 343

Counselling Victims 343

BRAIN BYTE Children and Abuse 344

Summary 345

Exercises 345

Weblinks 346

10 Mental Health and Substance Misuse 347

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 347

Mental Health in Canada 348

Mental Health Assessment 348

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders (DSM) 351

Major Mental Disorders 354

CONVERSATION 10.1 Paranoia 358

BRAIN BYTE Neurotransmitters and Mental Illness 359

CONVERSATION 10.2 How to Respond to Hallucinations 360

BRAIN BYTE Depression 362

BRAIN BYTE Depression and the Brain 363

BRAIN BYTE Trauma Therapy 364

BRAIN BYTE Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

(ADHD) 367

Child and Youth Mental Health 367

BRAIN BYTE Adolescent Marijuana Use 368

Co n t e n t s ix

BRAIN BYTE Adolescent Drug Use 369

Counselling and Working with People Who Have Mental Disorders 370

BRAIN BYTE Psychotropic Medication 372

CONVERSATION 10.3 When Clients Don’t Take Their

Medication 373

Substance Misuse 374

Counselling People with Substance Misuse

Problems 374

Many Canadians Use 374

Withdrawal from Drugs: Detoxification 376

BRAIN BYTE Korsakoff’s Syndrome 379

Substance Use Disorders and the DSM 379

Brain Plasticity and Addiction 379

Supporting Recovery from Addiction 379

BRAIN BYTE Pleasure Pathway 380

Co-occurring Disorders 382

Suicide Counselling 383

Warning Signs and Risk Assessment 384

Selected Groups 388

Indigenous Peoples 388

LGBTQ Community 389

Seniors 389

Summary 390

Exercises 391

Weblinks 392

11 Neuroscience and Counselling 393

LEARNING OBJECTIVES 393

The Remarkable and Mysterious Brain 393

BRAIN BYTE The Non stop Brain 394

BRAIN BYTE The Amazing Brain 395

Neuroscience: An Emerging Force in Counselling 395

CONVERSATION 11.1 Mind and Brain 395

Six Key Forces in Counselling 396

Why Neuroscience is Important for Counsellors 397

Neuroscience Endorses Counselling 397

Discovering the Secrets of the Brain 401

Brain Imaging 402

A Look Ahead 403

BRAIN BYTE Types of Depression 404

Neuroplasticity: An Empowering Discovery 404

Harnessing the Power of Neuroplasticity 405

Structure of the Brain 406

INTERVIEW 11.1 Helping Clients Use Neuroplasticity to Make Positive Changes 407

Hemispheres 409

Brain Lobes 410

BRAIN BYTE Right Brain/Left Brain 410

BRAIN BYTE Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas 412

Brain Lobes and Counselling 412

The Limbic System 413

CONVERSATION 11.2 Male and Female Brains 414

BRAIN BYTE The Importance of Social Contact 415

BRAIN BYTE Psychopathic Brains 416

Cranial Nerves 416

The Endocrine System 416

BRAIN BYTE Endocrine System versus Nervous System 416

Neurons: The Brain’s Information System 417

Major Neurotransmitters 421

BRAIN BYTE Endorphins 421

BRAIN BYTE Dopamine 422

Mirror Neurons 424

Glial Cells 425

Reward Pathway 425

Brain Problems 426

Mental Disorders 426

Meningitis 426

Encephalitis 426

Brain Tumours 427

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s Disease) 427

Cerebral Palsy 427

Epilepsy 427

Huntington’s Disease 427

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) 427

Parkinson’s Disease 428

Tourette Syndrome 428

Dementia 428

BRAIN BYTE Sundowning 430

BRAIN BYTE Is It Normal or Dementia? 431

CONVERSATION 11.3 Counselling People with Dementia 431

Stroke 431

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Acquired

Brain Injuries (ABI) 433

Summary 434

Exercises 435

Weblinks 436

Glossary 437

References 445

Tables, Figures, Conversations, Interviews,

and Brain Bytes Index 465

Author Index 468

Subject Index 472

Credits 480

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