Industrial Relations in Canada, 4th Edition PDF by Robert Hebdon, Traver C Brown and Scott Walsworth

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Industrial Relations in Canada, Fourth Edition

By Robert Hebdon, Traver C Brown and Scott Walsworth

Industrial Relations in Canada, 4th Edition

Contents:

About the Series XXll

Preface xxm

About the Authors

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter Learning Objectives 1

Opening Vignette: Ontario College Strike 2

What Is Industrial Relations? 2

Industrial Relations 3

IR Today 1.1: Industrial Relations in Universities 3

Labour Relations 4

Human Resources 4

Employee Relations 4

Employment Relations 4

Industrial Relations and This Textbook 5

The Industrial Relations System 5

Dunlop’s Industrial Relations System Model 5

Criticisms of Dunlop’s Industrial Relations System 7

External Inputs 8

IR Today 1.2: Precarious Employment, Youth

and the Gig Economy 11

Actors 12

Internal Inputs l 3

Conversion Mechanisms 13

Outputs 14

IRNotebook 1.1 : RelevantJournals 15

Views oflndustrial Relations 16

Neoclassical Economics View l 6

Pluralist and Institutional View l 6

Human Resources/Strategic Choice 17

Political Economy 1 7

Outline of the Text 18

Summary 19

Key Terms 19

Discussion Qyestions 20

Exercises 20

Case: Ontario College Strike 21

References 22

Chapter 2 Labour History 26

Chapter Learning Objectives 26

Opening Vignette: The Winnipeg General Strike 27

Preunionization 27

Master-Servant Relationship 28

The Movement to Unionization 28

The Early Years (Pre-1900) 28

IR Notebook 2.1: The Nine-Hour Movement 31

IR Notebook 2.2: Labour History- Some Regional Highlights 33

1900- 1920: The Years of Struggle 34

The 1930s and 1940s: Decline and Resurrection 37

The 1950s and 1960s: Reconciliation and Expansion into

the Public Sector 3 9

The 1970s and 1980s: Changing Relationships with Governments

and the United States 40

The 1990s: Increased Resistance 42

The 2000s and Beyond: Major Economic Restructuring Continues 44

IR Today 2.1: The “Gig” Economy 47

Implications for the Future of Labour 48

Larger Unions 48

Social Unionism 48

IR Today 2.2: Business versus Social Unionism 49

Global versus National 49

Summary 50

KeyTerms 50

Discussion Qiestions 51

Exercises 51

Case: From UAW to CAW to Unifor 52

References 54

Chapter 3 Economic, Social, and Political

Environments 61

Chapter Learning Objectives 61

Opening Vignette: How Income Inequality Hurts Every

Canadian’s Chance of Building a Better Life 62

The Economic Context 62

Macroeconomic Policy 62

The Labour Market 63

IR Today 3 .1: GM Announces $170m Investment

in Oshawa Plant That Will Save 300 Jobs 66

Supply of Labour 67

Work-Leisure Decisions 67

IR Notebook 3.1: Immigrants Crucial for Canada’s

Economic Growth 68

IR Notebook 3.2: Canada’s Demographic Transition 70

Social Conditions 70

Public Attitudes toward Unions 71

IR Notebook 3.3: Poll Results Show Majority of Canadians

Hold Favourable View of Unions 72

Work A ttitudes 73

Trends in Income Distribution and Poverty 73

IR Notebook 3.4: Poverty Is Declining in Canada-Especially

for Children 75

Changing Workforce Composition 76

Labour and Employment Relations Challenges 79

The Political Environment 81

IR Today 3.2: B.C. Labour Code Changes to Provide

Greater Protection for Workers 81

Globalization and Politics 84

Summary 85

Key Terms 85

Discussion Qiestions 85

Exercises 86

Case: Outsourcing and Canada-A Good Place to Outsource To! 86

Endnote 87

References 87

Chapter 4 The Legal Environment 92

Chapter Learning Objectives 92

Opening Vignette: Agricultural Workers Voice Concerns

in Federal Review of Temporary Foreign Worker

Program (TFWP) 93

‘Wagner Act History 94

The Snider Case 94

Union Recognition under the ‘Wagner Act Model 96

Labour Boards 96

Duty of Fair Representation 98

Collective Bargaining 98

Good Faith Bargaining 98

IR Notebook 4.1: Unfair Labour Practices under

the P.E.I. Labour Act 99

Dispute Resolution 100

Examples of the Expanded Government Role

in Collective Bargaining 100

Replacement Worker Laws 102

Collective Agreement Administration 102

IR Today 4 .1: Excerpt from Nova Scotia Trade Union Act 103

IR Today 4.2: Ontario Labour Relations Act: Arbitrator Powers 103

Role of the Charter 104

IR Today 4 .3: Charter of Rights and Freedoms 104

Review of Supreme Court Charter Decisions 105

A New Direction for the Supreme Court 108

IR Today 4.4: Supreme Court Relies on ILO Standards 109

IR Today 4.5: Supreme Court Rules on Collective

Bargaining for Agricultural Workers 110

A Right to Strike 110

IR Today 4.6: Canadian Workers Now Have a Constitutionally

Protected Right to Strike 111

Employment Law 111

Employment Conditions 111

IR Today 4.7: CUPE Celebrates Landmark Decision Reaffirming

the Right to Strike in Qiebec 112

Employee Rights 113

International Law 115

Summary 116

Key Terms 117

Discussion Qiestions 117

Exercises 118

Case 1: Recognition under the Canada Labour Code 118

Case 2: A USWA Organizing Drive at Canada Metals, Winnipeg 120

Endnote 120

References 120

Chapter 5 The Union Perspective 123

Chapter Learning Objectives 123

Opening Vignette: Why Join a Union? Top 5 Reasons according

to the United Steelworkers 124

The Contemporary Unionized Workplace 124

Worker Rights and Privileges 125

Advocatingfor Working People 125

IR Today 5.1: CLC Mourns the Passing of Nelson Mandela 125

New Challenges for Unions 126

Union Philosophies 126

Economics 126

Politics 127

IR Today 5.2: Joint Union/Management Task Force on

Diversity and Inclusion in the Public Service 127

IR Today 5.3: Co-op Strike at 3-Month Mark 128

Human Rights 128

Union Models 129

Craft/Occupational Unionism 130

IR Today 5.4: Craft Union: International Brotherhood

of Electrical Workers Constitution 131

Industrial or Multi-skill Unionism 131

IR Today 5.5: Craft Union: Ontario Nurses’ Association 132

IR Notebook 5.1: Unifor (Formerly the CAW) Aims

to Defeat Harper Tories 134

IR Today 5.6: Industrial Union: United Food and

Commercial Workers Canada 135

IR Today 5.7: Nurses Union Urges Action on Long-Term

Care Staffing 136

IR Today 5.8: Public Sector Union: Canadian Union

of Public Employees Constitution 137

IR Today 5.9: Discord within the House of Labour 138

IR Today 5.10: Inside NHLPA: Business Affairs 139

Organization and Structure 139

Union Size 13 9

Union Affiliation l 3 9

IR Today 5.11: CAW, CEP Union Merger Suggests

Greater Power in Numbers 141

IR Today 5.12: About the CLC 142

IR Notebook 5.2: The Supreme Court of Canada

Recognizes Right to Strike 143

Union Democracy 143

Why Employees Join Unions 145

Collective Voice 14 5

Utility 146

IR Notebook 5.3: Democracy at Work in the Public

Service Alliance of Canada (PSAC) 147

IR Notebook 5.4: Gain Advantage-Join the Union 147

Politics or Ideology 148

IR Today 5.13: Union Advantage 148

Why Employees Leave Unions 148

Why Do Unions Choose Certain Workplaces to Unionize? 149

Membership Patterns 149

The Changing Face of Unionization 153

The Growing Proportion of Women 153

Lower Union Density among Younger Workers 155

Differences by Region 155

Labour and the Environment 156

IR Today 5.14: Greenpeace: Tar Sands Destroying the

Environment 157

IR Today 5.15: Excerpt from CLC Plan for Green Jobs 158

Blue-Green Coalitions 158

IR Today 5.16: Better Municipal Transit Creates Jobs,

Cuts Greenhouse Gases 159

Summary 159

Key Terms 160

Discussion Q!lestions 160

Exercises 161

Case: Democracy and Finances in an OPSEU Local 161

References 163

Chapter 6 The Management Perspective 167

Chapter Learning Objectives 167

Opening Vignette: Canadian Hockey League: Employees

or Student Athletes? 168

The Evolving Managerial View 169

Master- Servant Relationship 169

Scientific Management (Iaylorism) 170

Human Relations 170

IR Notebook 6.1: Amazon: The Qiest for Efficiency 171

Human Resources Management (HRM) 172

The Growing Role of Management 173

The Strategic Choice Framework 173

Industrial Relations and Business Strategies 176

Management Strategies Related to Unions 177

IR Today 6.1: Union Avoidance Training 179

Current Managerial Perspectives and Trends 180

High-Peiformance Workplaces and Work Practices (HPWPs) 181

Non-union Employee Representation 183

IR Notebook 6.2: The NLMA: A Professional Association or a

Union? 186

Nonstandard Work Arrangements 187

IR Today 6.2: Precarious Employment in Higher Education 189

Summary 190

Key Terms 190

Discussion Qiestions 190

Exercises 191

Case: Provincial Cannabis Retailers 192

References 194

Chapter 7 Collective Bargaining 202

Chapter Learning Objectives 202

Opening Vignette: CUPW Gives Notice of Rotating Strikes in

Toronto & the GTA 203

Conflict-of-Interest Assumption 203

How Collective Bargaining Differs from

Individual Negotiations 204

IR Today 7.1: Strategic Negotiations 205

The Four Subprocesses of Collective Bargaining 205

Distributive Bargaining 206

Integrative Bargaining 206

Intra-team Bargaining 206

Attitudinal Structuring 207

Strategies and Tactics of the Bargaining 207

Subprocesses 207

Distributive Bargaining Tactics 208

Integrative Bargaining Tactics 208

Intra-team Tactics 208

Building Trust Tactics 209

A Collective Bargaining Model 209

Union-Employer Pressures 212

IR Today 7.2: Day 646 of D-J Composites Lockout Marked

by Big Union Rally 213

Employer- Union Member/ Employee Pressures 216

Union-Union Member Pressures 216

Bargaining Step by Step 216

The Dos and Don’ts of Bargaining 218

IR Today 7.3: A Negotiated Settlement 219

Interest-Based Bargaining (IBB) 219

What Is It? 219

IBB Steps 221

Why Is IBB So Difficult to Achieve? 221

Does IBB Work? 222

Summary 225

Key Terms 225

Discussion Qpestions 225

Exercises 225

Case: The Strike at Vale, 2009- 2010 226

Endnotes 231

References 232

Chapter 8 Collective Agreement Administration 233

Chapter Learning Objectives 233

Opening Vignette: University Hospital 234

Role and Layout of a Collective Agreement 234

‘Jjpes of Clauses 235

IR Notebook 8.1: Sample Table of Contents: The University

of Western Ontario Graduate Teaching Assistants 236

Rights of Parties 237

IR Today 8.1: Gender References in Collective

Agreement Language 239

Organization of Work 240

IR Today 8.2: Tone of the Union-Management Relationship 241

Labour Relations 244

Education, Training, and Employee Development 248

Conditions of Work 249

IR Today 8.3: Collective Agreement Language

Concerning Cannabis 258

Special Issues in Collective Agreements 259

Bumping 259

Super-Seniority 260

The Subtleties of Language 260

IR Notebook 8.2: Complexity of Collective

Agreement Language 261

A Special Case: The First Collective Agreement 262

Summary 262

Key Terms 263

Discussion Qiestions 263

Exercises 264

Case: Automotive Restructuring 267

End notes 268

References 268

Chapter9 Conflict Resolution: Grievances and Strikes 273

Chapter Learning Objectives 273

Opening Vignette: Thunder Bay Public Health Nurses’ Strike 274

Strikes 275

Defining Industrial Disputes 275

Strike Steps 277

IR Today 9 .1: Requirements for a Legal Strike 278

Strike Statistics 278

Theories, Causes, and Impacts of Strikes 286

Strike Theories 287

Strike Causes 288

Strike Impacts 290

IR Today 9.2: Unexpected Results: The Relationship

between Strikes and Legislation 291

IR Today 9.3: The Role of Third Parties 292

Grievances in Unionized Workplaces 292

Grievances Defined 293

The Grievance Procedure 2 9 5

Grievance Initiation 298

Grievance Effectiveness and Outcomes 299

IR Notebook 9.1: Grievances as a Union Advantage 300

Non-union Grievances 301

Tjpes of Non-union Grievances 301

W’hy Would Management Opt for a Non-union Grievance

Procedure? 302

Summary 302

Key Terms 303

Discussion Qpestions 303

Exercises 303

Case: D-J Composites Dispute 304

References 306

Chapter 10 Third-Party Dispute Resolution Procedures 313

Chapter Learning Objectives 313

Opening Vignette: Canadian Google Employees Stage Walkout

over Sexual Misconduct Allegations 314

Introduction 315

Grievance Arbitration 315

Rights Arbitration 315

IR Today 10.1: Cygnus Gymnastics 318

The Forms of Arbitration 321

Conventional Tripartite Arbitration 321

Sole Arbitration 32 l

Expedited Arbitration 32 l

Problems with Current Grievance Arbitration Processes 322

Interest Arbitration 322

Conventional Interest Arbitration 323

Final-Offer Arbitration 323

First Agreement Arbitration 323

The Pros and Cons of Interest Arbitration 323

Other Conversion Mechanisms 323

Conciliation and Mediation 323

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Options 324

Alternative Dispute Resolution in Non-union Firms 324

IR Notebook 10.1 : Grievance Mediation: An Alternative to Costly Arbitration 325

Summary 326

Key Terms 326

Discussion Qiestions 326

Exercises 327

Case: A Christmas Greeting 328

Endnote 329

References 329

Chapter 11 Impacts of Unionization 331

Chapter Learning Objectives 331

Opening Vignette: No Pain, No Gain 332

Impact of Unions on the Canadian Workplace 332

IR Today 11.1 : “Bargaining Is at a Standstill” 333

The Existing Evidence 334

Union Impact on Management Practices 334

Staffing 336

IR Notebook 11.1: Fact Sheet: Two-Tier Bargaining-How

to Recognize It and Reject It 337

Training and Development 339

Peiformance Appraisal 340

job Evaluation and job Analysis 340

Compensation 341

IRNotebook 11.2: The Union Dilemma: Pay or Jobs? 341

IR Notebook 11.3 : The Gender Pay Gap in Canada 346

IR Today 11.2: 7 Reasons You Should Join a Union 347

Equality, Participation, and Safety 348

IR Today 11.3: Canada’s Unions Mourn the Death

of Three Rail Workers in BC 349

HR Practices in Unions 350

Overall Impact 350

Unions and Firm Measures 350

Productivity 3 51

Profitability and Innovation 353

Investment and Return on Investment 354

The Impact of Unionization on Employee Measures 354

Voluntary Turnover (Quit Rates) 354

job Satiifaction and Intention to Quit 355

The Social Good 357

Summary 358

Key Terms 358

Discussion Qiestions 359

Exercises 3 5 9

Case: A Union of Sex Workers? 360

References 362

Chapter 12 Public-Sector Issues 369

Chapter Learning Objectives 369

Opening Vignette: Ontario Judge Finds Back-to-Work Legislation Aimed

at Postal Workers Violates Charter 370

Why Study Public-Sector Labour-Management Relations? 371

A Significant Industry 371

Highly Unionized 371

Important Part of the Labour Movement in Canada 3 71

Different Legislative Framework 371

Role of Government 372

Impeifect Labour Market 372

Politics and Public Opinion 373

IR Today 12.1: 9,600 Postal Workers on Strike 373

History of Public Sector Bargaining 374

Union Growth Factors 374

IR Today 12.2: Memphis Sanitation Strike, 1968 374

An Economic Analysis of Union Power 375

Dispute Resolution in the Public Sector 377

Recent Developments in Dispute Resolution 378

IR Notebook 12.1: Nova Scotia Teachers Union Says

Government “Has Done Enough” to Avoid Strike 380

Innovations in Dispute Resolution 381

The Four Generations of Public-Sector Bargaining 381

Management Issues 382

Restructuring: An International Phenomenon 382

The Canadian Context 383

Implications of Restructuring for Union-Management

Relations in Canada 385

Government Policies 385

Management Employees 3 85

Unionized Employees 385

IR Today 12.3: Manitoba Government, Unions Heading

to Court over Wage Freeze Bill 386

Management Issues 3 87

Union Issues 388

Summary 389

Key Terms 389

Discussion Qiestions 3 90

Exercises 3 90

Case: The Case of the Ontario Office of the Registrar General 390

Endnotes 3 97

References 3 97

Appendix A: Collective Bargaining Simulation: Coastal Crops Ltd. (CCL) 400

Appendix B: Collective Bargaining Simulation: Two-Tier Contract at

Community Grocery 412

Appendix C: Arbitration: The Case of Robyn Andrews 418

Glossary 424

Index 429

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