Fabric Testing Edited by Jinlian HU

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Fabric Testing
Edited by Jinlian HU
Fabric Testing

Contents
Contributor contact details xi
Woodhead Publishing in Textiles xv
Preface xxi
Acknowledgements xxiii
1 Introduction to fabric testing 1
J Hu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Fabric testing for innovation and commercial needs 2
1.3 Need for integration of fabric testing literature 4
1.4 Scope of fabric testing 5
1.5 Importance of fabric testing 10
1.6 Current status of fabric testing 16
1.7 Standards for tests 18
1.8 Future trends 22
1.9 Conclusions 24
1.10 References 25
2 Sampling and statistical analysis in textile testing 27
KF Choi, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China
2.1 Introduction: the requirement for sampling and statistics in textile testing 27
2.2 Sampling and statistical techniques used 28
2.3 Sources of error 29
2.4 Applications 31
2.5 Sampling of fabrics 45
2.6 Future trends 45
2.7 References 46
3 Fabric composition testing 48
Z Zhong and C Xiao, Tianjin Polytechnic University, China
3.1 Introduction: the importance of testing fabric composition 48
3.2 Methods of testing fabric content and composition 50
3.3 Traditional testing methods 51
3.5 New testing methods 57
3.6 Applications 69
frequency using fast Fourier transform 73
3.10 Testing of high-visibility fabrics 79
3.11 Fourier transform infared and thermal analysis of
3.12 References 87
4 Physical and mechanical testing of textiles 90
X Wang, X Liu and C Hurren, Deakin University, Australia
4.1 Introduction 90
4.2 Fabric weight and thickness 91
4.3 Fabric strength 92
4.4 Fabric stretch properties 105
4.5 Fabric abrasion resistance 108
4.6 Testing the aesthetic properties of fabrics 112
4.7 Applications and future trends 122
4.8 Sources of further information and advice 123
4.9 References 124
5 Fabric chemical testing 125
Q Fan, University of Massachusetts, USA
5.3 Fabric quality 129
5.4 Auxiliaries testing – sizing agents 131
5.5 Synthetic sizing agents 134
5.6 Surfactants 135
5.7 Fluorescent whitening agents 138
5.8 Colorants testing 138
5.9 Finishes testing 140
5.10 Degradation testing 143 Burning behaviour of fibres
3.7 Identification of new textile fibres
3.8 Case study: identification of ancient textile fibres
3.9 Identification of cashmere and wool fibre scale cashmere and other animal fibres
5.1 Introduction: definition and role of tests
5.2 Chemical identification of fibers
5.11 Conclusions 144
5.12 Sources of further information and advice 145
5.13 References 146
6 Fabric appearance testing 148
X Binjie and J Hu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, China
6.1 Introduction 148
6.2 Appearance testing: pilling testing and evaluation 149
6.3 Fabric wrinkling testing and evaluation 162
6.4 Seam puckering evaluation 170
6.5 Fabric dimensional stability testing 177
6.6 Light refl ectance of a fabric 182
6.7 Conclusions 187
6.8 References 187
7 Fabric permeability testing 189
X Ding, Donghua University, China
7.2 Aspects of wear comfort 190
7.3 Principle of different test methods for fabric permeability properties 191
7.4 Types of fabric permeability tests 191
7.5 Fabric permeability testing methods: applications 204
7.6 Innovative test methods for fabric permeability 216
7.7 Conclusions 224
7.8 References 224
8 Testing for fabric comfort 228
P Bishop, University of Alabama, USA 228
8.2 Evaluating thermal comfort 231
8.3 Moisture and comfort 237
8.4 Ease of movement 241
8.5 Evaluating sensory comfort 241
8.6 Statistical considerations in comfort measurement 247
8.7 Comfort measurement summary 249
8.8 Applications of comfort assessments 249
8.9 Future trends 250
8.10 Sources of further information and advice 250
8.11 References 251
9 Dyeing and colouring tests for fabrics 255
C Hurren, Deakin University, Australia
9.1 Introduction: key issues in the testing of dyes and colours 255
9.2 Assessing colour and colour change 255
9.3 Change in shade and staining tests 260
9.4 Test standards 261
9.5 Light fastness 262
9.6 Wash fastness 265
9.7 Fastness in relation to environmental factors 268
9.8 Fastness in relation to manufacturing processes 269
9.9 Printing tests 271
9.10 Applications 273
9.11 Future trends 273
9.12 Sources of further information and advice 274
9.13 Bibliography 274
10 Testing intelligent textiles 275
J Hu and KM Babu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, China
10.1 Introduction: role of intelligent textile testing 275
10.2 Understanding existing materials and technologies 276
10.3 Development of new products 277
10.4 Research and development in new products 279
10.5 Types of testing: shape memory effect 280
10.6 Evaluation methods for shape memory fabrics 281
10.7 Thermal regulation property of phase change materials 288
10.8 Self-cleaning testing 293
10.9 Electronic responsive testing 296
10.10 Applications 299
10.11 Future trends 303
10.12 Conclusions 305
10.13 Sources of further information and advice 305
10.14 References 306
11 Key issues in testing damaged textile samples 309
RVM Gowda, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology,
India and KM Babu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic
University, China
11.1 Introduction 309
11.2 Causes of damage 310
11.3 Types of damage 312
11.4 Stages of damage occurrence 316
11.6 Textile damage analysis: sample preparation 320
11.7 Methods of textile damage analysis 321
11.8 Further methods of textile damage analysis 330
11.9 Factors affecting accurate testing 334
11.10 Applications of textile damage analysis 335
11.11 Future trends 336
11.12 Sources of further information and advice 337
11.13 References 338
12 Flammability testing of fabrics 339
S Nazaré and AR Horrocks, University of Bolton, UK
12.1 Introduction 339
12.2 Key issues of fabric fl ammability 340
12.3 Measurement of fabric fl ammability 342
12.4 Standard testing methods 345
12.5 Textile fl ammability standards 360
12.6 Future trends 384
12.7 References 385

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