Green Chemistry for Dyes Removal from Wastewater: Research Trends and Applications Edited by Sanjay K. Sharma

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Green Chemistry for Dyes Removal from Wastewater: Research Trends and Applications
Edited by Sanjay K. Sharma
Green Chemistry for Dyes Removal from Wastewater

Contents
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xix
About the Editor xxi
1. Removal of Organic Dyes from Industrial Effluents:
An Overview of Physical and Biotechnological
Applications 1
Mehtap Ejder-Korucu, Ahmet Gürses, Çetin Doğar,
Sanjay K. Sharma and Metin Açıkyıldız
1.1 Introduction 2
1.1.1 Dyes 3
1.1.2 Historical Development of Dyes 4
1.1.3 Natural Dyes 5
1.2 Classification of Dyes 5
1.3 Technologies for Color Removal 10
1.3.1 Chemical Methods 12
1.3.2 Physical Methods 12
1.3.3 Biological Methods 18
References 22
2. Novel Carbon-Based Nanoadsorbents for Removal of
Synthetic Textile Dyes from Wastewaters 35
Shamik Chowdhury, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian and
Papita Das
Acronyms 35
2.1 Introduction 36
2.2 Basic Properties of Carbon Nanoadsorbents 37
2.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes 37
2.2.2 Graphene 40
2.3 Adsorpton of Textile Dyes by Carbon Nanoadsorbents 44
2.3.1 Adsorption by CNTs and Their Composites 44
2.3.2 Adsorption by Graphene and Its Related Materials 59
2.4 Mechanism of Dye Adsorption onto Carbon-Based
Nanoadsorbents 73
2.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 74
References 76
3. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Removal of Dyes from
Aqueous Media 83
Süheyda Atalay and Gülin Ersöz
3.1 Introduction 84
3.2 Advanced Oxidation Processes 85
3.2.1 Nonphotochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes 87
3.2.2 Photochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes 102
3.3 Concluding Remarks 109
References 110
4. Photocatalytic Processes for the Removal of Dye 119
Pankaj Chowdhury, Ali Elkamel and Ajay K. Ray
4.1 Introduction 119
4.2 Photocatalysis – An Emerging Technology 125
4.3 Photo-Oxidation Mechanism 126
4.4 Solar Photocatalysis/Photoreactors 126
4.5 Solar Photoreactor for Degradation of
Different Dyes 128
4.6 Dependence of Dye Degradation on Different
Parameters 129
4.6.1 Effect of Photocatalyst Loading 131
4.6.2 Effect of Initial Dye Concentration 131
4.6.3 Effect of Solution pH 132
4.6.4 Effect of Light Intensity 133
4.6.5 Effect of Electron Scavenger 133
4.7 Conclusions 134
Acknowledgement 134
References 135
5. Removal of Dyes from Effluents Using Biowaste-Derived
Adsorbents 139
Pejman Hadi, Sanjay K. Sharma and Gordon McKay
5.1 Introduction 140
5.2 Agro-Based Waste Materials as Dye Adsorbents 142
5.2.1 Rice Husk 142
5.2.2 Bagasse 150
5.2.3 Peat 153
5.2.4 Bamboo 157
5.2.5 Date Pits 161
5.2.6 Palm Tree Waste 168
5.2.7 Coconut 175
5.2.8 Tea and Coffee 180
References 192
6. Use of Fungal Laccases and Peroxidases for Enzymatic
Treatment of Wastewater Containing Synthetic Dyes 203
Keisuke Ikehata
6.1 Introduction 203
6.2 Textile Dyes – Classifications, Chemical Structures and
Environmental Impacts 205
6.2.1 Classification of Dyes 205
6.2.2 Chemical Structures 206
6.2.3 Environmental Impacts 208
6.3 Biodegradation of Synthetic Dyes by White Rot Fungi 213
6.3.1 Earlier Fungal Decolorization Studies with
Phanerochaete chrysosporium 216
6.3.2 Other White Rot Fungi 217
6.3.3 Bioreactors and Real Wastewater Treatment 217
6.4 Fungal Decolorization Mechanisms and Involvement
of Ligninolytic Enzymes 219
6.5 Classification and Enzymology of Ligninolytic Enzymes 220
6.5.1 Peroxidases 220
6.5.2 Fungal Laccases 227
6.6 Enzymatic Treatment of Synthetic Dyes 228
6.6.1 Lignin Peroxidases 230
6.6.2 Manganese-Dependent Peroxidases 231
6.6.3 Laccases 232
6.7 Concluding Remarks 237
Acknowledgements 248
References 248
7. Single and Hybrid Applications of Ultrasound for
Decolorization and Degradation of Textile Dye
Residuals in Water 261
Nilsun H. Ince and Asu Ziylan
7.1 Overview of the Textile Industry, Dyestuff and
Dyeing Mill Effluents 262
7.2 Sonication: A Viable AOP for Decolorizing/
Detoxifying Dying Process Effluents 265
7.2.1 Sonochemical Degradation of Azo Dyes 266
7.2.2 Operation Parameters in Decolorization/
Degradation of Textile Dyes by Ultrasound 269
7.2.3 Addition of Chemical Reagents 273
7.2.4 Reactors 274
7.3 Hybrid Processes with Ultrasound:
A Synergy of Combinations 274
7.3.1 Sono-Ozonolysis (US/O3) 274
7.3.2 Sonophotolysis (US/UV) and Sonophoto-
Ozonolysis (US/UV/O3) 279
7.3.3 Sono-Fenton (US/Fe2+) and Sonophoto-Fenton
(US/UV/Fe2+) 280
7.3.4 Sonocatalysis 281
7.3.5 Sonoelectrocatalysis 285
7.4 Conclusions 285
References 286
8. Biosorption of Organic Dyes: Research Opportunities and
Challenges 295
Guilherme L. Dotto, Sanjay K. Sharma and Luiz A. A. Pinto
Acronyms 295
8.1 General Considerations 296
8.1.1 Dye-Containing Effluents 296
8.1.2 Technologies for Dye Removal 297
8.1.3 General Aspects of Biosorption 297
8.2 Biosorbents 299
8.2.1 Agricultural Wastes 299
8.2.2 Algae Biomass 301
8.2.3 Bacterial Biomass 303
8.2.4 Chitosan 304
8.2.5 Fungal Biomass 306
8.3 Factors Affecting Biosorption 308
8.3.1 pH 308
8.3.2 Temperature 309
8.3.3 Biosorbent Dosage 310
8.3.4 Particle Size 310
8.3.5 Contact Time 311
8.3.6 Initial Dye Concentration 312
8.3.7 Stirring Rate 312
8.4 Biosorption Isotherms, Thermodynamics and Kinetics 313
8.4.1 Equilibrium Isotherms 313
8.4.2 Thermodynamic Parameters 317
8.4.3 Kinetic Models 318
8.5 Future Perspectives and Challenges 322
References 323
9. Dye Adsorption on Expanding Three-Layer Clays 331
Tolga Depci and Mehmet S. Çelik
9.1 Introduction 331
9.2 Classification of Dyes 334
9.2.1 Anionic Dye 334
9.2.2 Cationic Dyes 334
9.3 The Expanding Three-Layer Clay Minerals and Dye Adsorption 336
9.3.1 Removal of Anionic Dyes by Expanding Three-Layer Clays 337
9.3.2 Removal of Cationic Dyes by Expanding Three-Layer Clays 342
9.3.3 Effect of Ionic Strength on Uptake of Anionic and Cationic Dyes 344
9.3.4 Adsorption Kinetics 344
9.3.5 Adsorption Isotherms 346
9.3.6 Adsorption Thermodynamics 349
9.4 General Remarks 352
References 353
10. Non-conventional Adsorbents for Dye Removal 359
Grégorio Crini
10.1 Introduction 359
10.2 Activated Carbons from Solid Wastes 362
10.3 Clays 364
10.4 Siliceous Materials 367
10.5 Zeolites 369
10.6 Agricultural Solid Wastes 371
10.7 Industrial Byproducts 373
10.8 Peat 375
10.9 Chitin and Chitosan 377
10.10 Biomass 380
10.11 Starch-Based Derivatives 383
10.12 Miscellaneous Adsorbents 385
10.13 Concluding Remarks 388
References 389
11. Hen Feather: A Remarkable Adsorbent for Dye Removal 409
Alok Mittal and Jyoti Mittal
11.1 Introduction 410
11.2 Adsorbate Materials – Azo Dyes 413
11.2.1 Tartrazine 414
11.2.2 Amaranth 416
11.2.3 Dye Procurement 417
11.3 Adsorbent Material – Hen Feather 417
11.3.1 Development of Adsorbent Material 419
11.3.2 Characterization of Adsorbents 419
11.4 Preliminary Investigations 420
11.4.1 Experimental Methodology 421
11.4.2 Results and Discussions 423
11.5 Adsorption Isotherm Models 427
11.5.1 Adsorption and Adsorption Isotherm Models 428
11.5.2 Experimental Methodology 434
11.5.3 Results and Discussions 434
11.6 Kinetics Measurements 441
11.6.1 Theory of Kinetic Measurements 442
11.6.2 Experimental Methodology 446
11.6.3 Results and Discussions 446
11.7 Conclusions 451
References 452
Index 459

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