Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 13th Edition PDF by Richard Saferstein and Tiffany Roy

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Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Thirteenth Edition

By Richard Saferstein and Tiffany Roy

Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 13th Edition PDF by Richard Saferstein and Tiffany Roy

Contents:

Preface xi

About the Author xviii

Chapter 1

Introduction 1

Definition and Scope of Forensic Science 3

History and Development of Forensic Science 5

Crime Laboratories 8

Organization of a Crime Laboratory 9

Case Files

Forensic Science Helps Unravel the Mystery of

the Anthrax Letters 13

Functions of the Forensic Scientist 14

Case Files

Dr. Coppolino’s Deadly House Calls 19

Other Forensic Science Services 22

Chapter Summary 24

Review Questions 25

Application and Critical Thinking 26

Further References 28

Chapter 2

The Crime Scene 29

Processing the Crime Scene 31

Collecting and Packaging Physical

Evidence 43

Maintaining the Chain of Custody 47

Ensuring Crime-Scene Safety 48

Legal Considerations at the Crime Scene 50

Chapter Summary 51

Review Questions 52

Application and Critical Thinking 53

Further References 54

Case Analysis 54

Case Study

The Enrique Camarena Case:

A Forensic Nightmare 55

Chapter 3

Physical Evidence 61

Common Types of Physical Evidence 63

The Significance of Physical Evidence 64

Forensic Databases 71

Case Files

Gerald Wallace 74

Case Files

The Center City Rapist 74

Case Files

NIBIN Links Handgun to Suspects 75

Case Files

Aztec Gold Metallic Hit and Run 75

Chapter Summary 76

Review Questions 77

Application and Critical Thinking 77

Further References 78

Chapter 4

Crime-Scene Reconstruction:

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis 79

Crime-Scene Reconstruction 81

General Features of Bloodstain Formation 82

Case File

Pistorius: A Valentine’s Day Murder 82

Bloodstain Spatter Patterns 84

Classifying Impact Pattern 85

Origin of Impact Patterns 87

More Bloodstain Spatter Patterns 87

Case Files

Blood-Spatter Evidence 88

Documenting Bloodstain Pattern Evidence 94

Case Files

Bloodstain Reconstruction 95

Chapter Summary 98

Review Questions 98

Application and Critical Thinking 99

Further References 100

Chapter 5

Death Investigation 101

Role of the Forensic Pathologist 103

The Autopsy 104

Cause of Death 107

Case Files

Harold Shipman, Dr. Death 108

Manner of Death 110

Case Files

The Sheridans: Murder or Suicide 112

Estimating Time of Death 113

Role of the Forensic Anthropologist 115

Case Files

Identifying a Serial Killer’s Victims 120

Role of the Forensic Entomologist 121

Case Files

The Danielle Van Dam Murder Case 122

Chapter Summary 123

Review Questions 123

Application and Critical Thinking 125

Further References 126

Chapter 6

Fingerprints 127

History of Fingerprinting 129

Fundamental Principles of Fingerprints 130

Classification of Fingerprints 135

Automated Fingerprint Identification

Systems 136

Methods of Detecting Fingerprints 138

Case Files

The Night Stalker 138

Case Files

The Mayfield Affair 139

Preservation of Developed Prints 145

Digital Imaging for Fingerprint

Enhancement 145

Chapter Summary 147

Review Questions 148

Application and Critical Thinking 149

Further References 150

Chapter 7

Forensic Biometrics 151

Introduction to Biometrics 153

Enrolling and Extracting

Biometric Data 155

The Iris 156

Facial Recognition 159

Case Files

Living a Double Life 162

The Next-Generation Identification

System 162

Chapter Summary 165

Review Questions 165

Application and Critical Thinking 166

Further References 166

Chapter 8

The Microscope 167

Basics of the Microscope 169

The Compound Microscope 170

The Comparison Microscope 172

The Stereoscopic Microscope 174

The Polarizing Microscope 175

The Microspectrophotometer 176

The Scanning Electron Microscope 177

Forensic Palynology: Pollen and

Spores as Evidence 179

Case Files

Identifying Baby Doe 182

Case Files

Clues from the Cornfield 183

Chapter Summary 184

Review Questions 184

Application and Critical Thinking 185

Further References 185

Chapter 9

Firearms, Tool Marks, and

Other Impressions 187

Types of Firearms 189

Bullet and Cartridge Comparisons 190

Automated Firearms Search Systems 197

Case Files

Sacco and Vanzetti 198

Gunpowder Residues 201

Primer Residues on the Hands 204

Serial Number Restoration 207

Collection and Preservation of Firearms

Evidence 208

Tool Marks 209

Other Impressions 212

Case Files

The O. J. Simpson Trial—Who Left the

Impressions at the Crime Scene? 219

Chapter Summary 219

Review Questions 220

Application and Critical Thinking 221

Further References 222

Chapter 10

Matter, Light, and Glass

Examination 223

The Nature of Matter 225

Physical Properties of Matter 228

Theory of Light 235

Forensic Analysis of Glass 237

Glass Fractures 243

Collection and Preservation of

Glass Evidence 245

Chapter Summary 246

Review Questions 246

Review Questions for Inside the Science 247

Application and Critical Thinking 248

Further References 248

Chapter 11

Hairs and Fibers 249

Morphology of Hair 251

Identification and Comparison of Hair 256

Case Files

The Central Park Jogger Case Revisited 257

Collection and Preservation of

Hair Evidence 260

Forensic Examination of Fibers 260

Case Files

The Ennis Cosby Homicide 261

Identification and Comparison of

Manufactured Fibers 265

Case Files

Jeffrey MacDonald: Fatal Vision 269

Collection and Preservation of

Fiber Evidence 271

Case Files

Fiber Evidence and the Wayne Williams Trial 272

Chapter Summary 275

Review Questions 276

Review Questions for Inside the Science 277

Application and Critical Thinking 277

Further References 279

Chapter 12

Drugs 281

Drug Dependence 283

Types of Drugs 285

Drug-Control Laws 297

Collection and Preservation of

Drug Evidence 299

Forensic Drug Analysis 299

Chromatography 302

Spectrophotometry 310

Mass Spectrometry 313

Chapter Summary 316

Review Questions 317

Review Questions for Inside the Science 319

Application and Critical Thinking 319

Further References 320

Chapter 13

Forensic Toxicology 321

Toxicology of Alcohol 323

Testing for Intoxication 327

Field Sobriety Testing 330

Analysis of Blood for Alcohol 332

Alcohol and the Law 333

The Role of the Toxicologist 336

Case Files

Michael Jackson: The Demise of a Superstar 337

Case Files

Accidental Overdose:

The Tragedy of Anna Nicole Smith 338

Case Files

Joann Curley: Caught by a Hair 342

The Drug Recognition Expert 343

Chapter Summary 345

Review Questions 346

Review Questions for Inside the Science 347

Application and Critical Thinking 347

Further References 348

Chapter 14

Metals, Paint, and Soil 349

Forensic Analysis of Trace Elements 350

Principles and Technology of Trace Analysis 354

Case Files

Death by Radiation Poisoning 360

Forensic Examination of Paint 363

Case Files

The Predator 368

Forensic Analysis of Soil 369

Case Files

Soil: The Silent Witness 371

Collection and Preservation of

Soil Evidence 372

Chapter Summary 372

Review Questions 373

Review Questions for Inside the Science 374

Application and Critical Thinking 374

Further References 374

Chapter 15

Forensic Serology 375

The Nature of Blood 377

Blood Typing 379

Immunoassay Techniques 381

Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains 381

Principles of Heredity 387

Forensic Characterization of Semen 389

Collection and Preservation of

Rape Evidence 392

Case Files

A DNA Bonus 395

Chapter Summary 396

Review Questions 397

Review Questions for Inside the Science 398

Application and Critical Thinking 398

Further References 398

Chapter 16

DNA: The Indispensable

Forensic Science Tool 399

What Is DNA? 401

DNA at Work 403

Replication of DNA 404

DNA Typing with Short

Tandem Repeats 405

Case Files

Reopening the Boston Strangler Case 414

Mitochondrial DNA 415

Case Files

Cold Case Hit 416

Collection and Preservation of

Biological Evidence for DNA Analysis 418

Case Files

Contact Lens Evidence 422

Case Files

The JonBenét Ramsey Murder Case 422

Chapter Summary 425

Review Questions 426

Review Questions for Inside the Science 427

Application and Critical Thinking 427

Further References 429

Chapter 17

Forensic Aspects of Fire

and Explosion Investigation 431

The Chemistry of Fire 433

Heat Transfer 438

Conduction 438

Radiation 439

Convection 439

Searching the Fire Scene 440

Case Files

The Sackett Street Fire 442

Collection and Preservation of

Arson Evidence 443

Analysis of Flammable Residues 444

Explosions and Explosives 447

Types of Explosives 449

Collection and Analysis of Evidence of

Explosives 453

Case Files

Liquid Explosives 454

Chapter Summary 458

Review Questions 459

Review Questions for Inside the Science 460

Application and Critical Thinking 460

Further References 462

Chapter 18

Document Examination 463

Document Examiner 465

Handwriting Comparisons 465

Collection of Handwriting Exemplars 468

Typescript Comparisons 470

Alterations, Erasures, and Obliterations 472

Other Document Problems 474

Chapter Summary 479

Review Questions 480

Application and Critical Thinking 480

Further References 480

Chapter 19

Computer Forensics 481

From Input to Output: How Does

the Computer Work? 483

Storing and Retrieving Data 488

Processing the Electronic Crime Scene 489

Analysis of Electronic Data 492

Forensic Analysis of Internet Data 498

Forensic Investigation of Internet

Communications 500

Hacking 503

Mobile Forensics 504

Chapter Summary 506

Review Questions 506

Application and Critical Thinking 507

Further References 508

Chapter 20

Mobile Device Forensics 509

The Mobile Device Neighborhood: What

Makes a Mobile Device “Mobile”? 511

Forensic Challenges: Mobile Devices

as Small Computers—Sort Of 512

Extracting Useful Data: The Differences

in Various Types of Mobile Devices 514

Mobile Device Architecture: What Is

Inside the Device and What Is It

Used For? 516

Analyzing Mobile Devices: Finding

Forensically Valuable Artifacts 517

Case File

The FBI v. Apple: The Encryption Dispute 518

Hybrid Crime Assessment: Fitting

the Mobile Device into the

Digital Forensic Investigation 520

Case File

Carpenter v. United States 522

Chapter Summary 523

Review Questions 523

Application and Critical Thinking 524

Further References 524

Appendixes 525

I Code of Professional Responsibility

for the Practice of Forensic Science 526

II Handbook of Forensic Services—FBI 527

III Instructions for Collecting Gunshot

Residue (G

Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Thirteenth Edition

By Richard Saferstein and Tiffany Roy

Contents

Preface xi

About the Author xviii

Chapter 1

Introduction 1

Definition and Scope of Forensic Science 3

History and Development of Forensic Science 5

Crime Laboratories 8

Organization of a Crime Laboratory 9

Case Files

Forensic Science Helps Unravel the Mystery of

the Anthrax Letters 13

Functions of the Forensic Scientist 14

Case Files

Dr. Coppolino’s Deadly House Calls 19

Other Forensic Science Services 22

Chapter Summary 24

Review Questions 25

Application and Critical Thinking 26

Further References 28

Chapter 2

The Crime Scene 29

Processing the Crime Scene 31

Collecting and Packaging Physical

Evidence 43

Maintaining the Chain of Custody 47

Ensuring Crime-Scene Safety 48

Legal Considerations at the Crime Scene 50

Chapter Summary 51

Review Questions 52

Application and Critical Thinking 53

Further References 54

Case Analysis 54

Case Study

The Enrique Camarena Case:

A Forensic Nightmare 55

Chapter 3

Physical Evidence 61

Common Types of Physical Evidence 63

The Significance of Physical Evidence 64

Forensic Databases 71

Case Files

Gerald Wallace 74

Case Files

The Center City Rapist 74

Case Files

NIBIN Links Handgun to Suspects 75

Case Files

Aztec Gold Metallic Hit and Run 75

Chapter Summary 76

Review Questions 77

Application and Critical Thinking 77

Further References 78

Chapter 4

Crime-Scene Reconstruction:

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis 79

Crime-Scene Reconstruction 81

General Features of Bloodstain Formation 82

Case File

Pistorius: A Valentine’s Day Murder 82

Bloodstain Spatter Patterns 84

Classifying Impact Pattern 85

Origin of Impact Patterns 87

More Bloodstain Spatter Patterns 87

Case Files

Blood-Spatter Evidence 88

Documenting Bloodstain Pattern Evidence 94

Case Files

Bloodstain Reconstruction 95

Chapter Summary 98

Review Questions 98

Application and Critical Thinking 99

Further References 100

Chapter 5

Death Investigation 101

Role of the Forensic Pathologist 103

The Autopsy 104

Cause of Death 107

Case Files

Harold Shipman, Dr. Death 108

Manner of Death 110

Case Files

The Sheridans: Murder or Suicide 112

Estimating Time of Death 113

Role of the Forensic Anthropologist 115

Case Files

Identifying a Serial Killer’s Victims 120

Role of the Forensic Entomologist 121

Case Files

The Danielle Van Dam Murder Case 122

Chapter Summary 123

Review Questions 123

Application and Critical Thinking 125

Further References 126

Chapter 6

Fingerprints 127

History of Fingerprinting 129

Fundamental Principles of Fingerprints 130

Classification of Fingerprints 135

Automated Fingerprint Identification

Systems 136

Methods of Detecting Fingerprints 138

Case Files

The Night Stalker 138

Case Files

The Mayfield Affair 139

Preservation of Developed Prints 145

Digital Imaging for Fingerprint

Enhancement 145

Chapter Summary 147

Review Questions 148

Application and Critical Thinking 149

Further References 150

Chapter 7

Forensic Biometrics 151

Introduction to Biometrics 153

Enrolling and Extracting

Biometric Data 155

The Iris 156

Facial Recognition 159

Case Files

Living a Double Life 162

The Next-Generation Identification

System 162

Chapter Summary 165

Review Questions 165

Application and Critical Thinking 166

Further References 166

Chapter 8

The Microscope 167

Basics of the Microscope 169

The Compound Microscope 170

The Comparison Microscope 172

The Stereoscopic Microscope 174

The Polarizing Microscope 175

The Microspectrophotometer 176

The Scanning Electron Microscope 177

Forensic Palynology: Pollen and

Spores as Evidence 179

Case Files

Identifying Baby Doe 182

Case Files

Clues from the Cornfield 183

Chapter Summary 184

Review Questions 184

Application and Critical Thinking 185

Further References 185

Chapter 9

Firearms, Tool Marks, and

Other Impressions 187

Types of Firearms 189

Bullet and Cartridge Comparisons 190

Automated Firearms Search Systems 197

Case Files

Sacco and Vanzetti 198

Gunpowder Residues 201

Primer Residues on the Hands 204

Serial Number Restoration 207

Collection and Preservation of Firearms

Evidence 208

Tool Marks 209

Other Impressions 212

Case Files

The O. J. Simpson Trial—Who Left the

Impressions at the Crime Scene? 219

Chapter Summary 219

Review Questions 220

Application and Critical Thinking 221

Further References 222

Chapter 10

Matter, Light, and Glass

Examination 223

The Nature of Matter 225

Physical Properties of Matter 228

Theory of Light 235

Forensic Analysis of Glass 237

Glass Fractures 243

Collection and Preservation of

Glass Evidence 245

Chapter Summary 246

Review Questions 246

Review Questions for Inside the Science 247

Application and Critical Thinking 248

Further References 248

Chapter 11

Hairs and Fibers 249

Morphology of Hair 251

Identification and Comparison of Hair 256

Case Files

The Central Park Jogger Case Revisited 257

Collection and Preservation of

Hair Evidence 260

Forensic Examination of Fibers 260

Case Files

The Ennis Cosby Homicide 261

Identification and Comparison of

Manufactured Fibers 265

Case Files

Jeffrey MacDonald: Fatal Vision 269

Collection and Preservation of

Fiber Evidence 271

Case Files

Fiber Evidence and the Wayne Williams Trial 272

Chapter Summary 275

Review Questions 276

Review Questions for Inside the Science 277

Application and Critical Thinking 277

Further References 279

Chapter 12

Drugs 281

Drug Dependence 283

Types of Drugs 285

Drug-Control Laws 297

Collection and Preservation of

Drug Evidence 299

Forensic Drug Analysis 299

Chromatography 302

Spectrophotometry 310

Mass Spectrometry 313

Chapter Summary 316

Review Questions 317

Review Questions for Inside the Science 319

Application and Critical Thinking 319

Further References 320

Chapter 13

Forensic Toxicology 321

Toxicology of Alcohol 323

Testing for Intoxication 327

Field Sobriety Testing 330

Analysis of Blood for Alcohol 332

Alcohol and the Law 333

The Role of the Toxicologist 336

Case Files

Michael Jackson: The Demise of a Superstar 337

Case Files

Accidental Overdose:

The Tragedy of Anna Nicole Smith 338

Case Files

Joann Curley: Caught by a Hair 342

The Drug Recognition Expert 343

Chapter Summary 345

Review Questions 346

Review Questions for Inside the Science 347

Application and Critical Thinking 347

Further References 348

Chapter 14

Metals, Paint, and Soil 349

Forensic Analysis of Trace Elements 350

Principles and Technology of Trace Analysis 354

Case Files

Death by Radiation Poisoning 360

Forensic Examination of Paint 363

Case Files

The Predator 368

Forensic Analysis of Soil 369

Case Files

Soil: The Silent Witness 371

Collection and Preservation of

Soil Evidence 372

Chapter Summary 372

Review Questions 373

Review Questions for Inside the Science 374

Application and Critical Thinking 374

Further References 374

Chapter 15

Forensic Serology 375

The Nature of Blood 377

Blood Typing 379

Immunoassay Techniques 381

Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains 381

Principles of Heredity 387

Forensic Characterization of Semen 389

Collection and Preservation of

Rape Evidence 392

Case Files

A DNA Bonus 395

Chapter Summary 396

Review Questions 397

Review Questions for Inside the Science 398

Application and Critical Thinking 398

Further References 398

Chapter 16

DNA: The Indispensable

Forensic Science Tool 399

What Is DNA? 401

DNA at Work 403

Replication of DNA 404

DNA Typing with Short

Tandem Repeats 405

Case Files

Reopening the Boston Strangler Case 414

Mitochondrial DNA 415

Case Files

Cold Case Hit 416

Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for DNA Analysis 418

Case Files

Contact Lens Evidence 422

Case Files

The JonBenét Ramsey Murder Case 422

Chapter Summary 425

Review Questions 426

Review Questions for Inside the Science 427

Application and Critical Thinking 427

Further References 429

Chapter 17

Forensic Aspects of Fire

and Explosion Investigation 431

The Chemistry of Fire 433

Heat Transfer 438

Conduction 438

Radiation 439

Convection 439

Searching the Fire Scene 440

Case Files

The Sackett Street Fire 442

Collection and Preservation of

Arson Evidence 443

Analysis of Flammable Residues 444

Explosions and Explosives 447

Types of Explosives 449

Collection and Analysis of Evidence of Explosives 453

Case Files

Liquid Explosives 454

Chapter Summary 458

Review Questions 459

Review Questions for Inside the Science 460

Application and Critical Thinking 460

Further References 462

Chapter 18

Document Examination 463

Document Examiner 465

Handwriting Comparisons 465

Collection of Handwriting Exemplars 468

Typescript Comparisons 470

Alterations, Erasures, and Obliterations 472

Other Document Problems 474

Chapter Summary 479

Review Questions 480

Application and Critical Thinking 480

Further References 480

Chapter 19

Computer Forensics 481

From Input to Output: How Does

the Computer Work? 483

Storing and Retrieving Data 488

Processing the Electronic Crime Scene 489

Analysis of Electronic Data 492

Forensic Analysis of Internet Data 498

Forensic Investigation of Internet

Communications 500

Hacking 503

Mobile Forensics 504

Chapter Summary 506

Review Questions 506

Application and Critical Thinking 507

Further References 508

Chapter 20

Mobile Device Forensics 509

The Mobile Device Neighborhood: What Makes a Mobile Device “Mobile”? 511

Forensic Challenges: Mobile Devices as Small Computers—Sort Of 512

Extracting Useful Data: The Differences in Various Types of Mobile Devices 514

Mobile Device Architecture: What Is

Inside the Device and What Is It Used For? 516

Analyzing Mobile Devices: Finding Forensically Valuable Artifacts 517

Case File

The FBI v. Apple: The Encryption Dispute 518

Hybrid Crime Assessment: Fitting the Mobile Device into the

Digital Forensic Investigation 520

Case File

Carpenter v. United States 522

Chapter Summary 523

Review Questions 523

Application and Critical Thinking 524

Further References 524

Appendixes 525

I Code of Professional Responsibility for the Practice of Forensic Science 526

II Handbook of Forensic Services—FBI 527

III Instructions for Collecting Gunshot

Residue (GSR) 528

IV Chemical Formulas for Latent Fingerprint Development 530

V Chemical Formulas for Development of Footwear Impressions in Blood 534

Index 537

SR) 528

IV Chemical Formulas for Latent Fingerprint Development 530

V Chemical Formulas for Development of Footwear Impressions in Blood 534

Index 537

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