Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Anthropology, 10th Edition PDF by Conrad Phillip Kottak

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Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Anthropology, Tenth Edition

By Conrad Phillip Kottak

Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Anthropology, Tenth Edition

Contents:

Anthropology Today Boxes

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Author

Chapter 1

What Is Anthropology?

The Cross-Cultural Perspective

Human Adaptability

Adaptation, Variation, and Change

Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology

General Anthropology

The Subdisciplines of Anthropology

Cultural Anthropology

Anthropological Archaeology

Biological Anthropology

Linguistic Anthropology

Applied Anthropology

Anthropology and Other Academic Fields

A Humanistic Science

Cultural Anthropology and Sociology

Anthropology Today: Words of the Year

Summary

Chapter 2

Culture

What Is Culture?

Culture Is Learned

Culture Is Symbolic

Culture Is Shared

Culture and Nature

Culture Is All-Encompassing and Integrated

Culture Is Instrumental, Adaptive, and

Maladaptive

Culture’s Evolutionary Basis

What We Share with Other Primates

How We Differ from Other Primates

Universality, Generality, and Particularity

Universals and Generalities

Particularity: Patterns of Culture

Culture and the Individual

Ethnocentrism, Cultural Relativism, and Human

Rights

Mechanisms of Cultural Change

Globalization

Anthropology Today: Preserving Cultural Heritage

Summary

Chapter 3

Doing Anthropology

What Do Anthropologists Do?

Research Methods in Archaeology and Biological

Anthropology

Multidisciplinary Approaches

Studying the Past

Survey and Excavation

Kinds of Archaeology

Dating the Past

Relative Dating

Absolute Dating

Molecular Anthropology

Kinds of Biological Anthropology

Bone Biology

Anthropometry

Primatology

Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology

Ethnography: Anthropology’s Distinctive Strategy

Observation and Participant Observation

Conversation, Interviewing, and Interview

Schedules

The Genealogical Method

Key Cultural Consultants

Life Histories

Local Beliefs and Perceptions, and the

Ethnographer’s

Problem-Oriented Ethnography

Longitudinal Studies, Team Research, and

Multisited Ethnography

Survey Research

Doing Anthropology Right and Wrong: Ethical Issues

Ownership Issues

The Code of Ethics

Anthropologists and the Military

Anthropology Today: A Workshop in Genomics for

Indigenous Peoples

Summary

Chapter 4

Evolution, Genetics, and Human Variation

Evolution

Natural History Before Darwin

Evolution: Theory and Fact

Genetics

Mendel’s Experiments

Independent Assortment

Population Genetics and Mechanisms of Genetic

Evolution

Natural Selection

Mutation

Random Genetic Drift

Gene Flow

Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology

Races Are Not Biologically Distinct

Genetic Markers Don’t Correlate with Phenotype

Human Biological Adaptation

Explaining Skin Color

Genes and Disease

Lactose Tolerance

Anthropology Today: How Seriously Should We Take

Commercial DNA-Testing Sites?

Summary

Chapter 5

The Primates

Our Place among Primates

Apes Are Our Closest Relatives

Zoological Taxonomy

Homologies and Analogies

Primate Adaptations

The Primate Suborders

Monkeys

New World Monkeys

Old World Monkeys

Apes

Gibbons

Orangutans

Gorillas

Chimpanzees

Bonobos

Endangered Primates

Primate Evolution

Chronology

Early Primates

Early Cenozoic Primates

Oligocene Proto-Monkeys

Miocene Hominoids: The Proto-Apes

Planet of the Proto-Apes

An Evolutionary Timetable

Anthropology Today: Should Apes Have Human

Rights?

Summary

Chapter 6

Early Hominins

What Makes Us Human?

Bipedalism

Brains, Skulls, and Childhood Dependency

Tools

Teeth

Chronology of Hominin Evolution

Who Were the Earliest Hominins?

Sahelanthropus tchadensis

Orrorin tugenensis

Ardipithecus

The Varied Australopiths

Australopithecus anamensis

Australopithecus afarensis

Gracile and Robust Australopiths

Early Stone Tools

Surprisingly Early Stone Tools

Oldowan Hominins at the Kanjera Site

Anthropology Today: 3-D Bone Scans Suggest

Lucy’s Climbing Ability and Cause of Death

Summary

Chapter 7

The Genus Homo

Early Homo

Recent Discoveries

  1. rudolfensis
  2. habilis and H. erectus

Sister Species

Hunting, Tools, and Teeth

Out of Africa I: H. erectus

Acheulean Tools

Adaptive Strategies of H. erectus

The Evolution and Expansion of H. erectus

Middle Pleistocene Hominins

Ice Ages of the Pleistocene

  1. heidelbergensis

The Neandertals

Cold-Adapted Neandertals

The Neandertals and Modern People

The Denisovans

Neandertals, Denisovans, and Anatomically Modern

Humans

Asian Island Anomalies

Homo floresiensis

Homo luzonensis

Modern Humans

Out of Africa: AMH Edition

“Mitochondrial Eve” and the Spread of AMHs

Late Wave AMHs on the Move

The Advent of Behavioral Modernity

Advances in Technology

Glacial Retreat

Settling New Continents

Beringia and Beyond: Genetic Evidence

Archaeological Evidence

Anthropology Today: The Rising Stars of a South

African Cave

Summary

Chapter 8

The First Farmers

Broad-Spectrum Economies

The Mesolithic in Europe

Early Pottery and Vessels

The Neolithic

The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East

The Environmental Setting: A Vertical Economy

Steps Toward Food Production

Genetic Changes and Domestication

The Origin of Private Property

Food Production and the State

Other Old World Farmers

The Neolithic in Africa

The Neolithic in Europe

The Neolithic in Asia

The First American Farmers

Key Aspects of Food Production in the Americas

The Tropical Origins of New World

Domestication

Explaining the Neolithic

Costs and Benefits

American First?

Anthropology Today: Dietary Diversity and Climate

Change

Summary

Chapter 9

The First Cities and States

State Formation

Regulation of Hydraulic Economies

Regional Trade

Population, War, and Circumscription

Attributes of States

State Formation in the Middle East

Urban Life

An Early Ritual Center

The Halafian and Ubaid Periods

Social Ranking and Chiefdoms

The Rise of the State

Other Early States

State Formation in Mesoamerica

Early Chiefdoms and Elites

Warfare and State Formation: The Zapotec

Case

States in the Valley of Mexico

Why States Collapse

The Maya and Their Fall

The Fantastic Claims of Pseudo-Archaeology

Anthropology Today: The Inka Khipu System

Summary

Chapter 10

Language and Communication

Language

Nonhuman Primate Communication

Call Systems

Sign Language

The Origin of Language

Nonverbal Communication

Kinesics

Personal Space and Displays of Affection

The Structure of Language

Language, Thought, and Culture

The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

Focal Vocabulary

Sociolinguistics

Linguistic Diversity Within Nations

Gender Speech Contrasts

Stratification and Symbolic Domination

African American Vernacular English (AAVE)

Historical Linguistics

Language, Culture, and History

Language Loss

Anthropology Today: Naming a Pandemic: Do

Geographic Names Stigmatize?

Summary

Chapter 11

Making a Living

Adaptive Strategies

Foraging

Geographic Distribution of Foragers

Correlates of Foraging

Adaptive Strategies Based on Food Production

Horticulture

Agriculture

The Cultivation Continuum

Agricultural Intensification: People and the

Environment

Pastoralism

Economic Systems

Organization of Production in Nonindustrial

Societies

Means of Production

Alienation in Industrial Economies

Economizing and Maximization

Alternative Ends

Distribution and Exchange

The Market Principle

Redistribution

Reciprocity

Coexistence of Exchange Principles

Potlatching

Anthropology Today: To Give Is Good–Reciprocity

and Human Survival

Summary

Chapter 12

Political Systems

What Is “The Political”?

Types and Trends

Bands and Tribes

Foraging Bands

Tribal Cultivators

The Village Head

The “Big Man”

Pantribal Sodalities

Nomadic Politics

Chiefdoms

Political and Economic Systems

Status Systems

The Emergence of Stratification

State Systems

Population Control

Judiciary

Enforcement

Fiscal Support

Social Control

Hegemony and Resistance

Weapons of the Weak

Shame and Gossip

The Igbo Women’s War

Anthropology Today: Political Action to Protect the

Sentient Forest

Summary

Chapter 13

Families, Kinship, and Marriage

How Anthropologists View Families and Kinship

Families

Nuclear and Extended Families

Industrialism and Family Organization

Changes in North American Kinship

It’s All Relative

The Family among Foragers

Descent

Attributes of Descent Groups

Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules

Defining Marriage

Exogamy and Incest

Incest and Its Avoidance

The Occurrence of Incest

Incest Avoidance

Endogamy

Same-Sex Marriage

Romantic Love and Marriage

Marriage: A Group Affair

Gifts at Marriage

Durable Alliances

Divorce

Plural Marriages

Polygyny

Polyandry

The Online Marriage Market

Anthropology Today: What Anthropologists Could

Teach the Supreme Court about the Definition of

Marriage

Summary

Chapter 14

Gender

Sex and Gender

Recurrent Gender Patterns

Gender Roles and Gender Stratification

Reduced Gender Stratification: Matrilineal-

Matrilocal Societies

Matriarchy

Increased Gender Stratification: Patrilineal-

Patrilocal Societies

Patriarchy and Violence

Gender in Industrial Societies

Changes in Gendered Work

Work and Family: Reality and Stereotypes

The Feminization of Poverty

Beyond Male and Female

Sexual Orientation

Anthropology Today: Patriarchy Today: Case Studies

in Fundamentalist Communities

Summary

Chapter 15

Religion

What Is Religion?

Expressions of Religion

Spiritual Beings

Powers and Forces

Magic and Religion

Uncertainty, Anxiety, Solace

Rituals

Rites of Passage

Totemism

Social Control

Kinds of Religion

Protestant Values and Capitalism

World Religions

Religion and Change

Revitalization Movements and Cargo Cults

Religious Changes in the United States

New and Alternative Religious Movements

Religion and Cultural Globalization

Evangelical Protestantism and Pentecostalism

Homogenization, Indigenization, or

Hybridization?

The Spread of Islam

Antimodernism and Fundamentalism

Recent Religious Radicalization

Secular Rituals

Anthropology Today: Rituals in a Pandemic’s

Shadow

Summary

Chapter 16

Ethnicity and Race

Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity

Status and Identity

American Ethnic Groups

Minority Groups and Stratification

Race and Ethnicity

The Social Construction of Race

Hypodescent: Race in the United States

Race in the Census

Not Us: Race in Japan

Phenotype and Fluidity: Race in Brazil

Ethnic Groups, Nations, and Nationalities

Ethnic Diversity by Region

Nationalities Without Nations

Ethnic Tolerance and Accommodation

Assimilation

The Plural Society

Multiculturalism

The Backlash to Multiculturalism

Changing Demographics in the United States

The Gray and the Brown

The Gray Need the Brown

Ethnic Conflict

Sectarian Violence

Prejudice and Discrimination

Black Lives Matter

Anti-Asian Hate Crimes During the COVID-19

Outbreak

Ethnic Erasure

Anthropology Today: Why Are the Greens So White?

Race and Ethnicity in Golf

Summary

Chapter 17

Applying Anthropology

What Is Applied Anthropology?

The Role of the Applied Anthropologist

Early Applications

Academic and Applied Anthropology

Applied Anthropology Today

Development Anthropology

Equity

Negative Equity Impact

Strategies for Innovation

Overinnovation

Indigenous Models

Anthropology and Education

Urban Anthropology

Medical Anthropology

Disease Theory Systems

Scientific Medicine Versus Western Medicine

Industrialization, Globalization, and Health

Anthropology and Business

Can Change Be Bad?

Public and Applied Anthropology

Careers and Anthropology

Anthropology Today: Culturally Appropriate

Marketing

Summary

Chapter 18

The World System, Colonialism, and Inequality

The World System

World-System Theory

The Emergence of the World System

Industrialization

Causes of the Industrial Revolution

Socioeconomic Changes Associated with the

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Stratification

The Persistence of Inequality

Wealth Distribution in the United States

Risky Living on the American Periphery

Colonialism and Imperialism

The First Phase of European Colonialism: Spain and Portugal

Commercial Expansion and European

Imperialism

The British Colonial Empire

French Colonialism

Colonialism and Identity

Postcolonial Studies

Development

Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism and NAFTA’s Economic Refugees

Communism, Socialism, and Postsocialism

Communism

Postsocialist Transitions

The World System Today

Anthropology Today: When the Mills Shut Down: An

Anthropologist Looks at Deindustrialization

Summary

Chapter 19

Anthropology’s Role in a Globalizing World

Globalization and Global Issues

Energy Consumption and Industrial Degradation

Global Climate Change

Climate Change and Global Warming

Environmental Anthropology

Global Assaults on Local Autonomy

Deforestation

Emerging Diseases

Interethnic Contact

Cultural Imperialism and Indigenization

A Global System of Images

A Global Culture of Consumption

People in Motion

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous Empowerment

Autochthony and Essentialism

Anthropology’s Lessons

Anthropology Today: Diversity under Siege: Global

Forces and Indigenous Peoples

Summary

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

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