Advances in Braiding Technology: Specialized Techniques and Applications

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Advances in Braiding Technology: Specialized Techniques and Applications
Edited by Yordan Kyosev
Advances in Braiding Technology: Specialized Techniques and Applications

Contents
List of contributors xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles xv
Preface xxiii
Acknowledgments xxv

Part One Braiding of three-dimensional profiles 1
1 An overview of three-dimensional braiding technologies 3
A.E. Bogdanovich
1.1 Introductory remarks 3
1.2 A brief excursion to the field of braiding 5
1.3 3D braiding versus 2D braiding 7
1.4 An overview of row-and-column 3D braiding 11
1.5 An overview of 3D rotary braiding 21
1.6 Herzog 3D rotary braiders 36
1.7 A novel 3TEX 3D rotary braiding method 38
1.8 Mechanical properties of 3D rotary braided composites 66
1.9 Concluding remarks 71
References 73
2 Three-dimensional hexagonal braiding 79
F. Schreiber
2.1 Introduction 79
2.2 Principle of hexagonal braiding 79
2.3 Comparison of orthogonal and hexagonal arrangements 85
2.4 Conclusion 86
References 87
3 Three-dimensional (3D)-maypole braiding 89
M. Lengersdorf, T. Gries
3.1 Introduction 89
3.2 Structure of 3D-maypole braids 90
3.3 Braiding equipment for 3D-rotary braiding 92
3.4 Control and software 96
3.5 Possible paths in designated cross section 99
3.6 Application: tubular grid structure 99
3.7 Application: hat-shaped profile for stiffener element 101
3.8 Conclusion and future trends 104
Sources of further information 104
References 104
4 Cartesian 3D braiding 107
K. Bilisik
4.1 Introduction 107
4.2 Future trends 141
4.3 Conclusion 141
Sources of further information and advice 142
References 142

Part Two Specialist braiding techniques and applications 147
5 Partial carrier occupation of maypole braiding machines 149
Y. Kyosev
5.1 Introduction 149
5.2 Literature review 149
5.3 Fundamentals 151
5.4 Partial occupation of tubular braiding machines 160
5.5 Partial occupation of flat braiding machines 164
5.6 Inlay yarns in flat braids with partial occupation 164
5.7 Possibilities for future investigations 168
5.8 Conclusions 169
References 170
6 An overview of braiding structure in medical textile: fiber-based implants and tissue engineering 171
D. Aibibu, M. Hild, C. Cherif
6.1 Introduction 171
6.2 Braiding technology of medical textiles 176
6.3 Applications 178
6.4 Conclusion and future trends 185
References 186
7 Braids in candles 191
S. Bien, P. Glessner, M. Matthaei, M. Schmidt, S. West
7.1 Introduction 191
7.2 Different types of braided wicks, their applications and reasons for use 196
7.3 Round wicks 200
7.4 Modern candle quality requirements and further braiding parameters 204
7.5 Chemical treatments of wicks 205
7.6 Other wick types 206
7.7 Conclusion 208
References 208
Further literature 208
8 Lever arm braiding 209
Y. Kyosev, B. M€uller
8.1 Introduction 209
8.2 Terminological and historical aspects 210
8.3 Construction of modern lever arm braiding machines 211
8.4 Compensation and carriers 213
8.5 Common application areas of the lever arm braiding machines 217
8.6 Trends 220
8.7 Conclusions 221
Sources of further information 222
References 222

Part Three Braiding techniques for ropes 223
9 Braiding processes for braided ropes 225
M. Michael, C. Kern, T. Heinze
9.1 Introduction e a short/long? History of braided ropes 225
9.2 Braiding processes 226
9.3 Future trends 240
9.4 Conclusions 242
References 242
10 Rope finishing for braided ropes 245
M. Michael, C. Kern, J. Mammitzsch
10.1 Introduction 245
10.2 Rope finishing 246
10.3 Future trends in rope finishing 262
10.4 Conclusion 263
References 264
11 Mechanical properties of braided ropes as textile machine
elements 267
M. Michael, C. Kern, T. Heinze
11.1 Introduction 267
11.2 Braids as textile machine elements 268
11.3 Mechanical parameters 269
11.4 Demands on textile machine elements (future trends) 275
11.5 Conclusion 291
References 292
12 Operational stability testing of braided textile machine elements 293
M. Michael, C. Kern, A. Schmieder
12.1 Introduction 293
12.2 Test procedures 294
12.3 Future trends 310
12.4 Conclusion 314
References 315

Part Four Braiding for composites 317
13 Yarn damage during braiding of reinforcement fibers for composites 319
C. Ebel, A. Mierzwa, K. Kind
13.1 Introduction 319
13.2 Yarn damage 321
13.3 Yarn damage in the braiding process chain 326
13.4 Testing yarn damage 331
13.5 The yarn damage test bench 339
13.6 Impact of yarn damage 344
13.7 Methods for limiting yarn damage in braiding 347
13.8 Conclusion 350
References 351
14 Pultrusion of braids 355
M. Milwich
14.1 Introduction 355
14.2 History 357
14.3 Pultrusion process 358
14.4 Braid-pultrusion process 362
14.5 Pultrusion of curved profiles 370
14.6 Market for pultruded profiles 372
14.7 Research perspectives 375
14.8 Conclusion and future market development 378
Acknowledgment 378
References 378
15 Braided carbon fiber composites 383
M. Bulat, H. Ahlborn, F. Gn€adinger, D. Michaelis
15.1 Introduction 383
15.2 Types of braids for composites 383
15.3 Elements of a radial braiding machine and auxiliary equipment 385
15.4 Process automation 389
15.5 Applications 390
15.6 Outlook 392
References 394
16 Exemplary manufacturing process of a braided manipulator in serial production 395
F. Heieck, S. Carosella, S. Zuleger
16.1 Introduction 395
16.2 Predesign 395
16.3 Braiding process 398
16.4 RTM injection 402
16.5 Mechanical testing 402
16.6 Conclusion 403
Sources of further information 404
References 404
17 Braiding pultrusion of thermoplastic composites 405
J. Sch€afer, T. Gries
17.1 Introduction 405
17.2 Thermoplastic pultrusion 406
17.3 Construction of a lab-scale pultrusion line 410
17.4 Integration of inserts 415
17.5 Possible applications and markets 419
17.6 Economic aspects 421
17.7 Conclusion 426
Sources of further information 426
References 426 

Part Five Modelling and simulation 429
18 Overbraiding simulation 431
J.H. van Ravenhorst, R. Akkerman
18.1 Introduction 431
18.2 Simulation techniques 434
18.3 Forward solution 434
18.4 Inverse solution 438
18.5 Examples 439
18.6 Yarn interaction 445
18.7 Applications 448
18.8 Future trends 452
Acknowledgment 454
References 454
19 Finite element method (FEM) modeling of overbraiding 457
P. B€ohler, A. Pickett, P. Middendorf
19.1 Introduction 457
19.2 Finiteeelement (FE) braiding simulation 458
19.3 Analytical method for braid yarn paths 464
19.4 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-interface 467
19.5 Stiffness calculation 468
19.6 Method for numerical modeling of the yarns, matrix, and interfaces 471
19.7 Conclusions 473
References 474
Further reading 474
20 Embedded finite-element modeling approach for 3D Cartesian braid-reinforced composites 477
F. Regel
20.1 Introduction 477
20.2 Numerical modeling of 3D braids 478
20.3 Applications of Cartesian braiding 479
20.4 Modeling approach 485
20.5 Generation of FE models 489
20.6 Results and discussion 493
20.7 Conclusions 497
Acknowledgments 497
References 497
21 Geometrical modeling and computational mechanics tools for braided structures 501
Y. Kyosev
21.1 Introduction 501
21.2 Geometrical models at yarn level 501
21.3 Filling the yarn with filaments 510
21.4 Computational mechanics calculations with braided structures 513
21.5 Conclusions 517
References 517
22 Structural and tensile behaviors of braided reinforcements: characterization and model 521
B. Duchamp, X. Legrand, D. Soulat
22.1 Introduction 521
22.2 Braided reinforcements and braiding technology 523
22.3 Materials and methods 525
22.4 Structural characterization 528
22.5 Mechanical characterization 533
22.6 Modeling of the tensile behavior 539
22.7 Conclusions 543
References 545
23 Investigations about the braiding angle and the cover factor
of the braided fabrics using Image Processing and Symbolic
Math Toolbox of Matlab 549
Y. Kyosev, M. Aurich
23.1 Introduction 549
23.2 Application of the Image Processing Toolbox for braiding angle identification 549
23.3 Using Symbolic Toolbox for analytical calculations 555
23.4 Conclusions 569
References 569
Index 571

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